✎✎✎ Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender
After her graduate classes were completed, Sandra moved back to Pittsburgh, so water diamond paradox Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender could be close to Carnegie Tech, and she completed Should Kids Be Paid For Chores Essay dissertation in absentia. Among the important elements Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender the Bems' Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender at gender Qualitative Case Study childrearing, was the fact that Daryl was heavily and equally involved in the children's care Bem, Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender According to the gender schema theory, "the child learns to evaluate his or her adequacy as a person in terms of the Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender schema, to match his or her preferences, attitudes, behaviors, and personal attributes against the prototypes stored within it. As I review in the following, these include five areas. Bem identifies several aspects of Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender personalities and life situations that combined to fuel the attraction Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender Daryl and herself. Fortunately, the process of developing a gender schema is not finite or immutable.
Understanding Gender Diversity to Archive Critical Gender Lences
Given the number and the scope of interesting papers in these two issues, however, I find myself with few if any original ideas to add to what these scholars have observed. The issue editors, Keener and Mehta, have presented excellent introductions to each issue in which they highlighted key contributions of each paper. In addition, Lips offered a thoughtful concluding article after the first special issue that distilled many of the key themes across papers and shared by many of the papers in the current issue. Hence, readers will likely find that my reflections overlap with ideas presented in the other papers. To begin my commentary, I share some ways that Sandra Bem affected my own work.
I will reference articles in both special issues of Sex Roles to illustrate these points with more emphasis on those in the current issue. I also wish to acknowledge how her ideas affected my own development as a research psychologist. Learning about psychological androgyny affected this shift in my work. In my first study on gender and language, I examined self-perceived psychological androgyny in relation to communication style during conversations among mixed-gender undergraduate pairs Leaper For this research, I conceptualized speech acts based on two intersecting dimensions—influence assertion and involvement affiliation. Analogous to the androgyny model, I classified speech acts as either high in both dimensions collaborative acts: both assertive and affiliative , high in only one dimension controlling acts: high in assertion but low in affiliation; obliging acts: high in affiliation but low in assertion , or low in both dimensions withdrawal.
In subsequent years, I continued to study language and gender based on this model e. At the same time, my research program expanded to other facets of gender and sexism. Whereas the androgyny model inspired my two-dimensional conceptualization of speech acts, I avoided using the terms feminine and masculine to characterize the affiliative and the assertive dimensions, respectively—or to use the term androgynous to describe speech acts that reflected high levels of both dimensions. Lott had critiqued the terminology used in the androgyny model as essentialist. Alternatively, Lott proposed these behaviors should be seen as human attributes that can be expressed in all individuals. Having shared ways that Sandra Bem shaped my own thinking and scholarship, I turn next to her impact on the psychology of gender and sexuality over the last 40 years.
I consider how her insights frequently captured and helped to define the intellectual zeitgeist at key moments. Sandra Lipsitz Bem was at the vanguard in advancing many ideas about the psychology of gender and sexuality. Her influence is reflected in the excellent papers appearing in the two special issues of Sex Roles Keener and Mehta a , b. The number and the range of these articles speak to the reach that her ideas and work continue to have in psychology since the publication of her last new work nearly 20 years ago. Namely, Sandra Bem helped to start an argument in psychology about the meanings of gender and sexuality; moreover, she contested the status quo in society Bem , ; also see Balzer Carr et al.
From approximately to , Sandra Bem both reflected and helped to define the intellectual zeitgeist shaping the psychology of gender and sexuality. Her legacy is seen in multiple and overlapping ways. As I review in the following, these include five areas. First, Bem was at the vanguard of feminist psychology as it began to flourish in the s. Second, her androgyny model challenged traditional views of gender or gender identities as polar opposites. In later work, she further called into question the conceptualization of gender as a binary construct.
Third, Bem promoted a gender schema theory with the accompanying proposal that individuals did not have to view the world in gender-stereotypical ways. Fourth, Bem was among the first to consider the possibility that traditional gender socialization during childhood was neither inevitable nor desirable. Finally, there are other important topics and issues that she addressed in other papers that foreshadowed trends seen later in the field. I next briefly review each of these contributions. The metaphor of a lens was used to highlight some of the hidden assumptions about sex and gender that are internalized in individuals and enacted in society; these lenses shape how people think and act in ways that perpetuate heterosexual male dominance.
These arguments both reflected and advanced feminist psychology. Looking back, we can recognize how Bem was at the forefront of second-wave feminist psychology see Dean and Tate ; Golden and McHugh Her subsequent work on psychological androgyny and gender schemas challenged traditional notions of gender. That is, she advocated a conceptualization that went beyond views of women and men as opposites.
Bem , later extended her argument when she advocated for non-binary models of sex and gender. As Balzer Carr et al. In the latter work, researchers found that people were more likely to imagine male than female characters see Leaper a , b , for a review. With the resurgence of the feminist movement in the s and s, many psychologists were questioning the desirability of traditional gender roles as well as how they were conceptualized see Shields Bem helped to lead the way in when she published her landmark article on psychological androgyny. As mentioned earlier, this paper is her most frequently cited publication. Earlier models had characterized gender identity along a single dimension with psychological femininity and masculinity as polar opposites.
In contrast, Bem conceptualized them as two independent dimensions. Psychological femininity emphasized expressive, socioemotional, or affiliative traits whereas psychological masculinity reflected task-oriented, instrumental, or assertive traits. The androgyny model additionally allowed for the dual endorsement of both sets of traits, known as psychological androgyny. Moreover, Bem argued that androgyny was more adaptive and associated with greater psychological health Bem ; Bem and Lewis At the time, other psychologists were advancing similar ideas Block ; Hefner et al.
Nonetheless, Bem was clearly among the leaders in advancing these new conceptions of gender identity and gender roles. In the s, Sandra Bem tapped into another emerging zeitgeist when she reformulated the androgyny model into her gender schema theory Bem We see other psychologists advancing gender schema theories Liben and Signorella ; Markus et al. As originally formulated, Bem proposed that psychological androgyny would allow for greater flexibility and adjustment. That is, if a person can be assertive as well as affiliative, it allows for a greater repertoire of behavioral skills to deploy across a variety of settings see Martin et al. Since the introduction of androgyny models, research psychologists have expanded the type and number of dimensions that underlie gender identities see Huston ; Tobin et al.
According to Liben and Bigler , , these include traits, activities, and roles. For example, Perry and his colleagues highlighted self-perceived gender typicality, gender contentedness, and felt pressure as relevant identity dimensions Egan and Perry ; Tobin et al. The latter approach guided some of the papers seen in the current issue Lemaster et al. Some papers in the current special issue went beyond measuring only self-ratings of feminine- and masculine-stereotyped personality characteristics as indices of gender identity.
These two studies suggest that some dimensions of gender identity may be more related to certain outcomes than to other dimensions, whereas other dimensions may be more related to different outcomes see Tobin et al. Another recent conceptual advance is the recognition that gender group identities are not necessarily exclusive. Just as Bem posited that self-perceived feminine-stereotyped and masculine-stereotyped traits are not opposites, many contemporary researchers have recognized that group identities are potentially fluid see Balzer Carr et al. Accordingly, we see the emergence of another intellectual zeitgeist. For Martin et al. In an analogous manner, Bukowski et al.
Each set of researchers argued that these expressions of androgyny allow for greater adaptive flexibility in relation to different situations—as Bem , had proposed nearly four decades ago. In their study in the current issue, Fleming et al. They utilized the national Add Health dataset of U. Using this strategy, the researchers examined the likelihood that adolescents engaged in a violent fight in the prior 12 months. They found fights were more likely among male adolescents who scored higher on their index of same-gender similarity. However, with few exceptions, these investigations generally focused on documenting typical gender development, and they did not directly question whether traditional gender development was desirable or inevitable. Bem , challenged these notions, and she countered that gender development was malleable.
That is, she argued it was possible to raise children to be gender-aschematic. Bem strived to enact this ideal in her own life, as accounted in her autobiography aptly entitled, An Unconventional Family also see Golden and McHugh Furthermore, in the present issue, Lemaster et al. I note these briefly below. Then, a few years later, she conducted her first study on gender co-authored with Daryl Bem testing how the wording in job advertisements could contribute to sexist discrimination Bem and Bem a.
Their study occurred at a time when feminist researchers were increasingly examining ways that language defines and reinforces gender roles see Thorne and Henley ; also see Bailey and LaFrance , in this issue. Once again, we see Bem at the forefront in a research topic—language and gender—that would subsequently take off see Leaper a. In the subsequent decades, an increasing number of researchers and policymakers have addressed the problem of gender bias in educational attainment e.
In her last empirical studies, Bem and her colleagues examined factors related to prejudice against people with AIDS e. As she had started to do in her model of psychological androgyny, Bem was advocating for a more inclusive conceptualization of gender and sexuality. Once again, we see her at the vanguard in what increasingly became a wider call for greater acceptance of gender and sexual diversity in psychology and society at large see Balzer Carr et al.
I have highlighted some of the important ways this occurred also see Golden and McHugh First, she was at the forefront of second-wave feminist psychology in the s. In this regard, Bem challenged androcentric ways of thinking about gender and sexuality. Moreover, Bem helped to expand our notion of gender and gender identities beyond bipolar or dichotomous models. By extension, her androgyny and gender schema theories pushed people to consider the multifaceted features of gender and sexuality as well as the advantages of greater flexibility and equality for all children and adults.
Whereas people mostly associate Bem with her work on psychological androgyny and gender schemas, we also see her cutting-edge creativity in other endeavors that did not receive as much of her time. For example, Bem was one of the first persons to study how language and gender divisions are intertwined, and she was on the forefront of research which was beginning to study heterosexism and genderism. Finally, despite her last published works occurring over 20 years ago, we see that her ideas continue to inspire and influence many contemporary researchers—as reflected in the many papers that have appeared in these two special issues of Sex Roles in honor of Sandra Lipsitz Bem.
American Association of University Women. How schools shortchange girls. Washington, DC: Author. Google Scholar. Andersen, S. Sex typing and androgyny in dyadic interaction: Individual differences in responsiveness to physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41 1 , 74— Article Google Scholar. Bailey, A. Who counts as human? Antecedents to androcentric behavior. Sex Roles. Advance online publication. Balzer Carr, B. Bem, S. Verbal self-control: The establishment of effective self-instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74 4 , — Article PubMed Google Scholar. The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42 2 , — Probing the promise of androgyny.
Bean Eds. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88 4 , — Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society. Signs, 8 4 , — Genital knowledge and gender constancy in preschool children. Child Development, 60 3 , — The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. Dismantling gender polarization and compulsory heterosexuality: Should we turn the volume down or up? Journal of Sex Research, 32 4 , — An unconventional family. Does sex-biased job advertising "aid and abet" sex discrimination? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3 1 , 6— On liberating the female student.
The School Psychology Digest, 2 3 , 10— Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31 4 , — Sex typing and androgyny: Further explorations of the expressive domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 5 , — Bigler, R. Gendered language: Psychological principles, evolving practices, and inclusive policies.
Policy Insights from Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2 , — Block, J. Conceptions of sex role: Some cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives. American Psychologist, 28 6 , — Bukowski, W. Androgyny in liking and in being liked are antecedent to well-being in pre-adolescent boys and girls. Dean, M. Extending the legacy of Sandra Bem: Psychological androgyny as a touchstone conceptual advance for the study of gender in psychological science.
Dixon Jr. Twenty most controversial studies in child psychology. Egan, S. Gender identity: A multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment. She earned her Ph. She has a passion for research and believes that you should not waste time while doing research. Bem's career started at the first college she attended, as an Assistant professor in Psychology at Carnegie Tech. This is when Bem professionally became interested in sex and gender roles. She developed the Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI , distinguishing masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions and that people could exhibit both characteristics. Standford University then offered Bem a teaching postion, which she accepted, but eventually left due to not receiving tenure.
In she became a Professor. Bem worked on her Gender Schema Theory up until the time of her retirement in Accomplishments and Awards. Individual Awards:. Distinguished Scientific Award for an early career contribution to psychology. Bem's book Lenses of Gender has won:. Relevance to our Psychology of Women Class. It stores readily available information that we can go to quickly to makes associations. The Gender Schema Theorystates that we sex-type based on gender-schematic processing.She got into bed and Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender roman vs greek gods the two glasses on the night stand. Bem's memories of her early married years highlight how her family Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender Daryl martin lawrence gun the center of a larger community family Sandra Lipsitz Bems The Lenses Of Gender Bem believes that she developed the need to always be in control of her emotions and to assume responsibility for Standardized Testing Research Paper and others.