➊ Advantages Of Being On The Mediterranean

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Advantages Of Being On The Mediterranean



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The Phokaians founded Empuries in this region and later the even more distant Hemeroskopeion. By the middle of the 7th century the lone Greek colony in Egypt had been founded, Naukratis. Similar to the emporion established in the Nile Delta it is possible there was a Greek trading colony established by the Euboians along the Syrian coast on the mouth of the Orontes river at the site Al-Mina in the early 8th century BC. The Greek colony of Posideion on the promontory Ras al-Bassit was colonised just to the south of the Orontes estuary later in the 7th century BC. Barce L2. Cyrene L3. Balagrae L4. Taucheira L5. Ptolemais L6. Euesperides L7.

Antipyrgus L8. Portus Illicitanus S2. Akra Leuke S3. Alonis S4. Hemeroscopeum S5. Zakynthos S6. Salauris S7. Rhode S8. Emporion S9. Kalathousa S Mainake S Menestheus's Limin S Kypsela S Agde F2. Massalia F3. Tauroention F4. Olbia F5. Nicaea F6. Monoikos F7. Antipolis F8. Alalia F9. Rhodanousia F Olbia I2. Adria I3. Ancona I4. Parthenope I5. Cumae I6. Procida I7. Dicaearchia I8. Neapolis I9. Poseidonia I Metapontum I Sybaris I Thurii I Taras I Siris I Crotona I Gallipoli I Elea I Messina I Kale Akte I Syracuse I Didyme I Hycesia I Phoenicusa I Epizepherean Locris I Rhegium I Lentini I Selinountas I Megara Hyblaea I Naxos I Tauromenion I Acragas I Himera I Gela I Catania I Leontini I Ereikousa I Euonymos I Kamarina I Medma I Hipponion I Heraclea Minoa I Caulonia I Trotilon I Pyxous I Mylae I Terina I Rhegion I Tindari I Macalla I Temesa I Metauros I Krimisa I Chone I Saturo I Heraclea Lucania , Siris I Agathyrnum I Adranon I Akrillai I Casmenae I Akrai I Engyon I Thapsos I Pithekoussai I Salona C2.

Tragyrion C3. Epidaurus C5. Issa C6. Dimos C7. Pharos C8. Epidaurum C Narona C Nymphaeum AL2. Epidamnos AL3. Apollonia AL4. Aulon AL5. Chimara AL6. Bouthroton AL7. Oricum AL8. Heraclea Lyncestis. Potidaea GR2. Stageira GR3. Acanthus GR4. Mende GR5. Ambracia GR6. Corcyra GR7. Maroneia GR8. Krinides GR9. Olynthus GR Abdera GR Therma GR Arethusa GR Leucas GR Eion GR Sane GR Amphipolis GR Argilus GR Akanthos GR Astacus GR Galepsus GR Oesyme GR Phagres GR Datus GR Stryme GR Pistyrus GR Rhaecelus GR Dicaea GR Methoni GR If we consider that navigation was suspended during the four winter months the famous mare clausum ,"closed sea", of the Romans , we reach an average of five large grain vessels per navigable day.

The amphorae from Baetica, which constitute the majority of the 50,, examples of Monte Testaccio , are very large vessels which, when full, weighed about 90 kg. Each ship must have transported over three thousand of these. Spread over two and a half centuries, the period during which the mountain was formed, we attain about seven ships per navigable month, to which must be added those which transported wine, fish products, the naves lapidariae specialised in the transport of marble and stone blocks , and those which carried wild animals for the circus, in addition to those involved in local commerce.

All this merchandise was directed to Rome, where, however, the port destined to receive it was only constructed in the first century. Merchant ships which exceeded a amphora capacity about tonnes could not travel upstream. They were obliged to anchor at sea and be unloaded onto smaller vessels, which shuttled between the ships and the river port of Ostia. These operations were very lengthy and dangerous: the coastline, in fact, was inhospitable, low and sandy. At the end of the Republic, when Rome began its incredible demographic growth, the situation became untenable. The grain reserves became dangerously low and they were obliged to resort to winter navigations to replenish the storage reserves. Up until that point Pozzuoli, situated west of the bay of Naples, had functioned as the port of Rome for large merchant ships.

Here arrived the large fleets bearing grain from Sardinia and Sicily, during the Republican period, and later from Alexandria. Smaller vessels journeyed back and forth to Ostia. They constituted a large fleet, numbering about 90 vessels only for grain transport. The bridge of boats which the emperor Caligula had built in A. Thus immobilised, they could not restock the capital, which was struck by terrible famines that winter and during the following two winters as well.

The Pozzuoli-Ostia voyage took two days. The remaining time was taken up by the loading and unloading operations, to which were added three days to travel up the Tiber. Towing, from the right bank of the river, was undertaken by animals or slaves. In this regard there was a specific category of vessels, the naves caudicariae , employed for the river transport of merchandise transshipped from merchant ships. The Fiumicino 1 and 2 shipwrecks represent the archaeological evidence of these boats. The hulls of these vessels were abandoned in a marginal area of the port of Rome, constructed by the emperor Claudius in A.

Basch, L. However, more than 1, kinds of herbal medicines were used by Islamic physicians during the period of the Arab Empire — The dosage forms utilized in AHM include decoction, infusion, oil, juice, syrup, roasted materials, fresh salads or fruits, macerated plant parts, milky sap, poultice, and paste, of which some formulations of herbal drugs are still used today [ ]. Although AHM is the first choice for many people in dealing with ailments in the Middle East, most of the herbalists such as those in Jordan , who acquire the expertise from their predecessors, are not properly trained in herbal medicine [ ] Figure 9.

Past and present of Arabic herbal medicine [ ]. In contrast to CHM or IHM, the physical characteristics of the herbal size, shape, color, texture, and taste traditionally served as important criteria in their selection for therapeutic purposes. For example, seeds with kidney shape are used for treating kidney stones; roots shaped similar to the human body or fruits that resemble human testicles are traditionally used to stimulate sexual desire or treat sexual weakness; a yellow decoction or juice obtained from herbal leaves is used for treating jaundice and liver diseases [ , ].

In this section, two important issues related to herbal medicine are discussed. Due to shortage of scientific evidence on the molecular mechanism of herbs, it is often considered as only an alternative choice to conventional drugs. Here, we attempt to describe the feasibility and superiority of herbal medicine containing complex and multicompounds as medication using logical concepts in philosophy. Currently, multidrug therapy or polypharmacy, also known as multiple drug intake or cocktail treatment, which involves therapeutic interventions using combinations of drugs herbal versus chemical, herbal versus herbal, and chemical versus chemical through pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways or both [ — ], is commonly practiced in clinical situations. It is believed that multidrug therapy produces beneficial effects that do not occur when using each drug alone.

Nevertheless adverse drug reaction ADR , another important public health problem, may be enhanced after multidrug combination treatment through not only drug-drug interaction, but also herb-herb or drug-herb interaction [ , ]. For example, as a monotherapy, St John's wort extract has an encouraging safety profile. However, in some cases, life-threatening interactions were reported when used together with other drugs [ ]. More often than not, the pathogenesis of diseases is related to multiple targets rather than a single target. Asai et al. However, at present, the treatment of patients with TB or multidrug-resistant TB using conventional drug therapy requires 6 or 18—24 months, respectively [ ].

A polypill containing amlodipine, losartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and simvastatin produces a significant effect in preventing heart attacks and strokes [ ]. Therefore, the multitarget herbal formula can produce a wide range of therapeutic effects. Herbal formulations evolved from thousands of years of experience in practicing herbal medicine. While therapeutic interventions using multiple drugs in modern medicine are based on an understanding of disease processes and drug mechanisms, the use of multicomponent herbal formulae Fu-Fang in Chinese herbal medicine is based on CM theory and practical experience.

For instance, the common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, which primarily affects the nasal cavity. However, cold symptoms typically include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, headache, fever, and discomfort in the entire body. So far, no single chemical entity can simultaneously alleviate all clinical manifestations of common cold. Therefore a typical over-the-counter cold remedy is composed of multiple drugs, such as aspirin A , phenacetin P , and caffeine C , in an APC tablet. One and one can add up to more than two. Excessive medical treatment and medication, including the consumption of herbal medications, is a global trend, especially in developed countries. Countless facts have indicated that herbal preparations or formulations can be used for the treatment of many common as well as complex diseases for all ages, with a minimum of adverse side effects compared to conventional drugs.

Together with the long history of their use, plant-derived herbs and herbal products are gaining popularity in the global market as registered drugs, dietary supplements, health care products, cosmetics, and so forth. Medicinal plants are highly esteemed as a rich source of new therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of diseases. The sales of herbal drugs or related products are expected to increase at an annual rate of 6. Of the , higher plant species on earth, more than 80, are of medicinal value even in the genome era. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are almost 55, native species, at least 1, documented medicinal plants, and probably many more undocumented species used by various indigenous groups [ ].

It can be expected that natural medicines, particularly herbal medicine, will make a growing or even a decisive contribution to human health care again. Some of these compounds include tubocurarine, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, pilocarpine, ephedrine, vinblastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, capsaicin, allicin, curcumin, and artemisinin. Unfortunately, many plant species on earth have become endangered as the consumption of herbs and herbal products continues to increase world-wide.

Traditional herbal medicine uses remedies derived from plants, animals, metals, and minerals. If herbal resources are inappropriately exploited, the extinction of many plant species will inevitably occur, with a resulting adverse alteration of the ecological environment. To treasure and maintain the gifts from mother nature Hindu philosophy regards the Earth as a living being, i. Therefore, it is high time to formulate strategies to avoid the overexploitation of herbal resources. Despite current advances in science and medicine, disease remains a serious threat to public health in both developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, and all ethnic groups.

Ancient and modern people take medicines to fight illness or to feel better when they are sick. Most medicines conventional drugs at present are chemically synthesized and some are isolated from naturally occurring plants on the basis of their use in traditional medicine. However, our ancestors took only certain kinds of specific natural remedies to fight or prevent a specific illness. Because modern drug development is a high-risk and therefore high-failure commercial endeavor and synthetic drugs have a high rate of adverse events; there is a universal trend of using herbal medications or related products.

Based on cultures and geographical regions, various kinds of herbal remedies have evolved. Herbal medicines are therefore an integral part of culture and geographical environment, and various kinds of herbal medicines have their own unique way of understanding and treating a disease. However, the globalization of trade and market has brought about an integration of different kinds of herbal medicines over the world. At present, herbal medications or related products in the global market are derived from Chinese herbs, Indian herbs, Arabic herbs, and Western herbs.

As for the medications derived from herbs, they no longer belong to any herbal series or category and have essentially become equivalent to conventional drugs. To date, herbal products are widely available to consumers and have become increasingly popular throughout the world. There is no doubt that herbal products will continue to play a crucial role in the health care system of human societies, not to mention that secondary metabolites of plants are economically important as drugs, fragrances, pigments, food additives, and pesticides Figure 11 [ ].

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others.

Introduction Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Table 1 Some important texts in the historical developmental process of Chinese materia medica [ 33 , 34 ]. Open in a separate window. Species in China and CHM Nature has endowed China with a vast landscape with varied geographical features and a resultant wealth of medicinal plants. Figure 1. Figure 2. Pharmaceutics of CHM Dosage form, also known as routes of administration, is a mixture of components with medicinal properties and nondrug components excipient or vehicle. Figure 3.

Dosage forms and pharmaceutical techniques in Chinese herbal medicine CHM. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. The Status Quo of IHM The treatment of disease by Ayurveda is highly individualized and depends on the psychophysiologic status of the patient, particularly in relation to the season of the year [ ]. Achievements of AM The Arabic world used to be the center of scientific and medical knowledge for many centuries from to CE after the fall of the Roman Empire. Figure 8. Past and Present of AHM During the 8th century, Arabs in the Baghdad region were the first in history to separate medicine from pharmacological science.

Figure 9. Discussion In this section, two important issues related to herbal medicine are discussed. The Theoretical Advantages of Herbal Medicine Due to shortage of scientific evidence on the molecular mechanism of herbs, it is often considered as only an alternative choice to conventional drugs. Figure Pharmacodynamic synergism and pharmacokinetic synergism of herbal medicines. Resource Conservation in Herbal Medicine Excessive medical treatment and medication, including the consumption of herbal medications, is a global trend, especially in developed countries. Classification of herbal medicines HMs in the international market. References 1. Botanic gardens conservation international. Media Centre. Jack DB. One hundred years of aspirin. The Lancet.

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