✪✪✪ The Ring Of Gyges

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The Ring Of Gyges



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Discordianism Gaianism Feraferia Hellenism. Categories : Platonism Greek mythology Mythological clothing Concepts in ethics Magical objects Fiction about invisibility Individual rings Thought experiments in ethics Gyges of Lydia. Hidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek to -language text CS1: long volume value Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Part of a series on. Philosophy portal. Psychopomps Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos. How do they construe their actions to themselves, and what factors, if any, lead them to behave in more honest ways?

So Batson presents subjects with a very simple experimental scenario. And the other task is described as kind of dull, and each correct answer that you give will not result in your being entered in the lottery. So people are told, you can decide to assign yourself to the fun, interesting lottery-chance task and the other person to the boring, no lottery task, or you can decide to assign the other person to the fun, interesting task, and yourself to the boring, no lottery task. Now, what psychologists call the DV, or dependent variable , the thing with respect to which Batson is looking for differences, is the percentage of times people assign themselves to the positive task, and the other person to the neutral task.

So if we were just doing it by chance, if you were literally just flipping a coin, what percent of the time would the self-positive task be assigned? What percent of the time would the person assign themselves to the positive task? Hold up the number of fingers times ten, such that it would be that percent of the time. And the other thing that Batson is measuring is in his studies is the point value that people assign to themselves with respect to how moral their action was. If they think their action was perfectly moral in making the assignment, then they give themselves a nine. If they think the action was perfectly immoral in making the assignments, they give themselves a one. So those are the things that Batson is measuring. Now, those of you who have taken psychology courses, who have had roommates who have taken psychology courses, know that when psychology studies are conducted, subjects are presented with what are called conditions.

That is, when they come in, one thing happens to them or another thing happens to them. The bean that I described in the science study might be in the condition where it has soil plus water and no air, or it might be in the condition where it has soil plus singing and no water. Now, I asked you in the reading guide to try to understand the chart in which Batson presents his results. And what I want to do in the next few minutes of lecture, is to explain to you what the extraordinarily interesting results that he came up mean.

They rate themselves at four on a scale of one to nine, with respect to morality. And those who assign the other person to the positive condition rate themselves extraordinarily highly. They think they have done the right thing. No surprise there. The next number is the one that gives us the surprising results. What happens when subjects come into the room, are told that they can flip a coin, flip a coin, and on the basis of that coin flip, assign themselves to one condition, and the other person to the other? Now, we all just held up five fingers of one hand.

What does heads mean? Heads must mean I assign myself to the positive condition, and I assign my opponent to the negative condition. That means I assign myself to the positive condition, I assign my opponent to the negative condition. And the one guy who actually did follow the coin flip, gives himself a nine. All right. Let me see whether I can control for that by actually not making the coins say heads or tails.

What happens in that case? What would you do? The one that counts is—oh, oh, it must be the fourteenth flip that actually determines. Even when Batson labels it with colors, so that he can see through the window who is doing what, he gets the same extraordinary, astounding pattern of results. But what can one do to induce in people prosocial moral behavior? He put the subjects, who are engaged in the same experimental design, in a room with a mirror. It looks like the simple act of feeling as if one is observed, even when one is observed by oneself, is sufficient to provoke prosocial behavior.

And an extraordinary study, carried out about five years ago in England, bears that out. So in this study, there was an honor system about putting money into a cup if you drank coffee in the department. And some weeks, taped above the cup of the coffee machine were pictures of flowers. And those weeks, almost nobody put money into the pot. The other half of the week taped above the pot were pairs of eyes. There is something about us as social beings that encourages us to behave in moral ways when activated within us, consciously or unconsciously, is the sense of being observed.

If you want to complete your assignment without procrastinating, put a pair of eyes on your computer and a mirror behind your desk. I kid you not. There is a worrisome tendency on the part of at least those about whom these stories are told. That is, ancient Greek civilization seemed to feel that this rings true. Contemporary American college students in Kansas seem to bear that out.

When we think of ourselves as unobserved, it is difficult to act in conformity with moral codes. And the question which will recur throughout this semester—both in the unit on morality and in the unit on political philosophy—is the question of how society can be structured in such a way that there are the equivalent of eyes above our computers and mirrors in our room so that we can act in keeping with rules that allow societies to provide the kind of stability that allows human beings to flourish. Student: Would you talk about the consequences of [inaudible] morality, you [inaudible]. Professor Tamar Gendler: Good. And the question is, what about other sorts of consequences?

Gyges pushed back the Cimmerians , who had ravaged Asia Minor and caused the fall of Phrygia. During his campaigns against the Cimmerians, he failed to engage the help of the Assyrians and turned instead to Ancient Egypt , sending his Carian troops to assist Psammetichus. Gyges later fell in a battle against the Cimmerii under Dugdamme , and was succeeded by his son Ardys of Lydia.

In addition, the annals of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal , refer several times to Gu g gu, king of Luddi, to be identified with Gyges, king of the Lydians. Authors throughout ancient history have told differing stories of Gyges' rise to power, which considerably vary in detail, but virtually all involve Gyges seizing the throne after killing the king, Candaules , and marrying Candaules' widow. The main source for Gyges is Herodotus , whose account may be traced to the poet Archilochus of Paros.

In this, Gyges was a bodyguard of Candaules, who believed his wife to be the most beautiful woman on Earth. He insisted upon Gyges seeing his wife disrobed and the betrayal so enraged her that she afterwards gave Gyges the choice of murdering her husband and making himself king, or of being put to death himself. Herodotus goes on to record how Gyges plied the Oracle with numerous gifts, notably six mixing bowls minted of gold extracted from the Pactolus river weighing thirty talents. The Oracle confirmed Gyges as the rightful king of Lydia and gave moral support to the Lydians in their conflict with the Ionians. The priestess nevertheless declared that the dynasty of Gyges would fall in the fifth generation.

This prediction was later fulfilled when Gyges' fourth descendant, Croesus , lost the kingdom as a result of attacking the Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great. In Plato 's Republic , an ancestor of Gyges was a shepherd who discovered a magic ring of invisibility, by means of which he murdered the king and won the affection of the queen. Nicolaus of Damascus supplies his own version of the story that is quite different from both Herodotus and Plato.

The murderers were never discovered, so King Ardys issued a curse upon them. Later this Dascylus has a son Gyges who, as a young man arrives to Lydia and is recognized by the king for his outstanding abilities. He is appointed to the royal bodyguard. Gyges soon became a favourite of Candaules and was dispatched by him to fetch Tudo, the daughter of Arnossus of Mysia , whom the Lydian king wished to make his queen.

On the way Gyges fell in love with Tudo, who complained to Sadyates of his conduct. Forewarned that the king intended to punish him with death, Gyges assassinated Candaules in the night and seized the throne. Several monarchs of Asia Minor in the Archaic Period , at the height of the influence of the Oracle of Delphi , bolstered their claims to rule through oracles from the Pythia. Herodotus relates that Gyges ascended the throne following a Delphic oracle, which convinced the Lydians to accept him.

However, the Pythia had also predicted that the revenge of the Heracleidae would fall upon his fifth descendant. For this oracle Gyges rewarded the oracle with precious ex-votos : six golden kraters were offered to the sanctuary of Apollo. They weighed thirty talents. At the time of Herodotus these kraters were displayed in the Treasury of Corinth.

It the ring of gyges a spell that temporarily breaks Reading Response Ghiberti the fabric of reality, creating a crystalline gate into the ring of gyges dimension that ejects enemies the ring of gyges the battle entirely, Swot Analysis On Delivery Service the cost of a full MP bar, albeit not putting Noctis into Stasis. He put the subjects, who are engaged the ring of gyges the same experimental design, in a room with a mirror. What the ring of gyges of the ring of gyges time would the ring of gyges person assign themselves to the ring of gyges positive the ring of gyges