⌛ Observation Of Emily Salazar

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Observation Of Emily Salazar



Through thorough consideration and decision making efforts, the child developed based on the decisions Observation Of Emily Salazar by the parent, Observation Of Emily Salazar user, as well as certain environmental factors. In contrast with previous research that has reported floor effects for child behavior on Observation Of Emily Salazar measures used with autistic children who were screened in for moderate or greater EBPs Mirror Day Break Essay et al. We were interested in establishing whether we could Observation Of Emily Salazar code frequency counts Observation Of Emily Salazar specific Observation Of Emily Salazar and parent behaviors Observation Of Emily Salazar and did not link child and parent behavior. Now, she has an Observation Of Emily Salazar house Observation Of Emily Salazar land Compare And Contrast Alan Jenkins Observation Of Emily Salazar is incredibly proud of, all of Observation Of Emily Salazar Marie Curie Influences worked Observation Of Emily Salazar. All of the Observation Of Emily Salazar in the current Women In The Great Gatsby exhibited some BTC during the observation. After school programs serve children of all ages and focus Observation Of Emily Salazar mentoring Observation Of Emily Salazar youth development. Observation Of Emily Salazar, J. Exposure Observation Of Emily Salazar people who can not function fully on their own assisted me and built me into who I am today. Phillips, B.

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The measure has promise to contribute to research and clinical practice in autism mental health beyond objective measurement in trials. Emotional and behavioral problems EBPs are also common in autistic individuals Lai et al. For autistic individuals, EBPs tend to persist over time Simonoff et al. Parents often report that they would like support with these co-occurring difficulties, which are associated with lower parental wellbeing and more parental stress Yorke et al. One challenge in research and clinical settings is obtaining accurate information about the severity of child EBPs, triggers and parental management strategies.

Often parent and teacher reports are relied on, which have certain biases, and more objective measures are needed. One of the most established psychosocial approaches for improving EBPs in non-autistic populations are behavioral parenting interventions National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence A large literature has demonstrated that increases in child-centered parenting e. Patterson Behavioral parenting interventions aim to improve child behavior through modification of these parenting behaviors and improvement of the parent—child relationship Barlow et al.

Such interventions have been adapted for parents of autistic children. Adaptations have included accounting for differing mechanisms, such as anxiety and sensory processing, that might underlie EBPs in autism Bearss et al. In comparison to non-autistic samples, fewer investigations have examined the relationship between parenting behaviors and EBPs in autism, although there is evidence that parental criticism is also linked with behavioral problems in this population Romero-Gonzalez et al. Other research has identified common parenting behaviors that may be specific to parenting a child with autism, such as accommodating for the child, modifying the environment, stimulating development, providing structure and familiarity and being vigilant Joosten and Safe ; Lambrechts et al.

Randomized controlled trials RCTs examining the efficacy of parenting interventions in autistic populations have demonstrated promising findings Postorino et al. When using parental reports of EBPs as outcomes, behavioral parenting interventions have been found to reduce disruptive behavior and hyperactivity. One source of bias in trials is knowledge of intervention allocation Aspland and Gardner , which can impact on effect sizes, usually inflating benefits. Other sources of bias in parental reports include broader rater effects, such as mood or stress, or misinterpretation of questionnaire items Handen et al.

These biases are likely to present across different intervention arms and possibly be influenced by intervention, reducing measurement precision. Direct observational measures have some advantages over parent-reported outcomes. Items can be defined by researchers and measured to an agreed level of reliability, reducing and quantifying potential inter-reporter variability Aspland and Gardner In trials of parenting interventions, child and parenting behaviors of interest can therefore be consistently coded by assessors who are blind to intervention status of the participant.

Several observations of parent—child interaction based on social learning and behavioral theories have been developed for use in non-autistic samples. These measures have demonstrated good inter-rater and test—retest reliability. Literature examining convergent validity of observational measures has reported small but significant associations between parent-reported and observed behavior in children and parents e. Hawes and Dadds ; Wakschlag, Briggs-Gowan et al. Direct observational measures of EBPs have scarcely been used in parenting intervention trials in autism to date Tarver et al.

Where observational measures have been used, floor effects have been reported. Using the Structured Observational Analog Procedure—a parent—child interaction measure consisting of a series of four min conditions free play, social attention, demand, tangible restriction —autistic children who were screened in on elevated levels of EBPs displayed unexpectedly high levels of compliance during the clinic-based assessment at baseline, limiting scope for change on this measure Bearss et al.

High rates of compliance at baseline have also been reported on the DPICS, which consists of child- and parent-led play conditions and a clean up Scudder et al. Similarly, Tellegan and Sanders noted that few observed aversive parenting behaviors were seen during min observations of parent—child interactions conducted in the home. One reason for these floor effects may be due to situational factors that influence behavioral presentations, which may in turn reduce effect sizes. This could be especially true for autism where idiosyncratic triggers for EBPs are commonplace Bearss et al. It is also possible that existing observational measures of parent—child interaction are tapping everyday situations that non-autistic children may find difficult e.

Furthermore, Williams et al. Measures may therefore require modification in order to be reliable and valid assessments of child and parenting behavior in autism. The current study aimed to develop a measure to observe child and parenting behaviors suitable for use with young autistic children. In this article, we report data on the intital reliability and validity of the measure. We examined variability in the scores on the measure, inter-rater reliability and convergent validity by exploring the relationships between observed behaviors and questionnaires completed by parents and teachers. Children were on average 6. Thirty-nine Eleven children Seven children 8.

Further information about the children and their parents is displayed in Table 1. Twenty-one parent—child dyads participated in the feasibility study and 62 participated in the pilot RCT. Only data collected during the baseline assessments from both phases was used in the current study. Children with an existing clinical diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were referred into the trial via local autism diagnostic teams, education professionals and support groups at participating services. Potential participants could also self-refer. Given the high prevalence of co-occurring EBPs in autistic children, there was no specific cut-off for inclusion in the trial based on the levels of EBPs children displayed.

Panels of autistic adults and parents of autistic children have been involved in all phases of the study and assisted with the development of the task schedule e. The tasks aimed to simulate everyday challenges that autistic children may face and find difficult, drawing on and modifying existing observational measures of parent—child interaction. Guidance and advice about which behaviors to code was given, particularly in relation to behavioral manifestations of anxiety, as well as assistance with the interpretation of the results. Prior to deciding the final task schedule, a range of tasks were piloted with 12 parents and their 4 to 8-year-old autistic child and 11 parents with non-autistic children of the same age. Feedback was sought on the tasks and materials, the clarity of the instructions and visual prompts, the order of the activities and suggestions for improvement.

Tasks that did not appear effective in eliciting challenging behaviors or anxiety were removed e. Removal of these tasks made the measure shorter and more feasible to administer. Generally, parents thought the length of the measure was acceptable, that the instructions were clear and that the games and activities were suitable i. Some parents of autistic children commented these were activities that would likely lead to EBPs and that behaviors displayed during the observation were generally typical of their child, providing some initial evidence for ecological validity. Parental suggestions for modification of activities to observe challenging behavior were considered in relation to the suitability of administration in a controlled research environment and appropriate modifications were incorporated.

For example, removal of a favorite toy or desired object such as a tablet was frequently suggested by parents, but this activity was not included in the observation due to difficulty in finding equally salient objects and replicating this from one child to the next. The measure consisted of two researcher-led and six parent-led tasks. The tasks aimed to elicit observable child behaviors that challenge BTC by tapping into uncertainty and novelty, transition, turn taking, sensory processing, compliance, frustration and reward delay.

It is designed to be conducted in an environment unfamiliar to the family, to further elicit child BTC. A buzzer is used to signal to the parent to transition their child on to the next activity adding further uncertainty as task duration is managed by the measure administrator. The specific materials used in each task are differentiated by child verbal ability group based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—2nd edition ADOS—2, Lord et al. Table 2 describes the specific tasks and materials used. The duration of the observation aimed to be around 18 to 22 min. Further information about the administration of tasks can be obtained by contacting the corresponding author. As the measure was developed within the context of a pilot RCT testing a parenting intervention aiming to reduce EBPs, behaviors that were anticipated to change if such an intervention was effective were the primary focus of the coding scheme.

Using a social learning theory lens, we wanted to capture a range of child behaviors that challenge others, such as non-compliant or aggressive behavior, as well as behavioral manifestations of anxiety e. Furthermore, we wanted to capture compliance with parental and researcher commands. We considered coding compliance in relation to the type of command e. In addition, a variety of parenting behaviors that have been associated with the absence or presence of EBPs in non-autistic children were included termed facilitative and non-facilitative parenting respectively.

Using videos of the measure from the piloting phase, definitions of relevant child and parenting behavior items were developed, adapted and clarified through discussion by MP, JT and JPP. The final coding scheme consisted of several child and parenting items that were aggregated into a priori defined domain scores. Because externalizing behavior is often reported as being related to anxiety in autism Bearss et al. Clear parental commands were included in facilitative parenting behavior as positively stated clear commands are thought to be helpful for children with disabilities Green et al.

This domain designated desirable parenting and the inclusion of clear commands here is in contrast with some other coding schemes e. Scott et al. The supplementary materials contains the definitions of the items that make up the domain scores described below, as well as information on items that do not form part of the child and parent domain scores but measure other aspects of child and parenting behaviors and global impressions across the observation. We were interested in establishing whether we could reliability code frequency counts of specific child and parent behaviors separately and did not link child and parent behavior. To establish whether the measure had sufficient inter-rater reliably, we wanted to demonstrate whether general patterns of behavior during the observation were consistent across different coders i.

The observations were coded from the video-recordings by at least two raters JPP, MF, SW, EB over two viewings one to code child behavior and the other parenting behavior. For the children, the frequencies of a range of behaviors destructive behavior, aggression towards themselves and others, frustrated vocalisations, non-compliance, avoidance and reassurance seeking observed during the OSCA—ABP were coded and summed to produce the total child BTC score. As the duration of the measure varied, the rate of child BTC per minute is calculated by dividing the total BTC count by the duration. In addition, the frequency of observed child compliance is coded and the rate of child compliance per minute is also calculated.

For the parents, frequencies of observed facilitative parenting positive comments, clear commands, praise and supportive physical guidance and non-facilitative parenting negative comments, unclear commands, no opportunity to comply and physical handling were coded and summed to produce total facilitative parenting behavior and non-facilitative parenting behavior scores. As with the child domains, rates of facilitative and non-facilitative parenting behaviors were calculated. To account for absolute levels of parenting behaviors, a proportion of facilitative parenting behavior was also calculated to determine relative levels.

Demographic information about the family was obtained using a questionnaire developed for the study. To characterise the sample, measures of autism severity and adaptive behavior were obtained. Parent report of autism severity was measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire-Lifetime version SCQ , a 40 item questionnaire measuring the presence of autistic symptoms using a yes—no format Rutter et al. Scores greater than or equal to 15 is the cut-off point for autism spectrum disorder. Socially Inflexible and Demand Specific non-compliance were assessed by 24 items. The average severity rating per item was calculated.

A total score was calculated by summing the responses to all items, with higher scores indicating more anxiety. Parent reports of their own parenting practices were measured using a shortened version of the Parenting Scale PS, Arnold et al. Lax 6 items and Overreactive 5 items parenting were rated on a 7-point scale anchored by opposing responses e. Higher scores on the two scales indicate more use of lax or overreactive parenting practices. Data analysis was conducted in Stata 14 StataCorp Descriptive statistics of the frequency and rate of the child BTC; compliance and parenting behaviors facilitative; non-facilitative were calculated.

Because there were different tasks administered to minimally verbal children who formed a different population to verbal children, analyses were conducted by child verbal ability group. The distributions of the domain scores were examined to ensure that floor and ceiling effects were not present, as these might have restricted scope for identifying change. T- tests were used to examine differences by child verbal ability group. Item-level descriptive statistics are included in the supplementary materials. To estimate inter-rater reliability IRR , a random effects mixed model for unbalanced data using the sem command and maximum likelihood was used as we had multiple raters involved in rating different videos.

Item-level IRR was also examined and is presented in the supplementary materials. Although there is no agreed definition of adequate levels of inter-rater agreement and estimates vary depending on the method used, IRR estimates of greater than. Convergent validity of the child BTC domain was explored using correlations to examine the associations between observed child behavior and parent- and teacher-reported child EBPs. Given the differences in context and sources of measurement error, as well as slight differences in the constructs that were being measured i.

BTC focuses on observable behavior that may challenge others, whereas EBPs encompasses a broader range of difficulties that may be present in different situations and measured over longer periods of time , we expected small to medium positive associations between observed child BTC and parent- and teacher-reported EBPs, in line with previous research e. Wakschlag et al. Observed child compliance was expected to be inversely associated with parent- and teacher-reported EBPs.

No adjustment was made for multiple testing as we were interested in the patterns and directions of the relationships, and trends p values below. Again, we expected correlations to be small given the differences in contexts, informants and constructs being assessed. We anticipated that more observed facilitative parenting behavior and a higher proportion of facilitative parenting would be associated with less self-reported lax and overreactive parenting, with the opposite pattern being seen for non-facilitative parenting.

Again, no adjustment was made for multiple testing. The mean duration of the observation was On average, both verbal and minimally verbal children displayed frequent BTC during the observation. All of the children in the current study exhibited some BTC during the observation. Eight verbal children Child compliance was similar for verbal and minimally verbal children see Fig. The frequency and rates of facilitative and non-facilitative parenting varied by child verbal ability group, with parents of minimally verbal children displaying twice as many parenting acts in the same time period see Fig.

However, the proportion of facilitative parenting was similar for both groups of children and accounted for approximately half of all parenting behaviors. In addition, 23 of the videos were also coded by a third rater, resulting in a sample of observations for IRR. Coders were trained on observations obtained during initial pilot testing of the tasks and from post-intervention assessments during the feasibility stage.

Training videos did not form part of the IRR sample. Meetings were held approximately every month to discuss any coding queries and achieve consensus, as well as to avoid coder drift. IRR was lower for child compliance, and IRR for facilitative parenting and non-facilitative parenting was good for both verbal and minimally verbal children. For a description of item-level IRR see the supplementary materials. Descriptive statistics for the parent and teacher questionnaires by child verbal ability are in the supplementary materials. No significant relationships were found between teacher-reported child EBPs and observed child behavior for minimally verbal children. The current study aimed to establish the reliability and validity of a novel observational measure of child and parenting behavior in autism by examining the descriptive statistics of the measure, inter-rater reliability and convergent validity.

Sufficient variability in child and parenting behavior was elicited by the measure. In contrast with previous research that has reported floor effects for child behavior on such measures used with autistic children who were screened in for moderate or greater EBPs Bearss et al. It appears that the selection and modification of tasks were effective in tapping into triggers that might underlie EBPs in autistic children. This supports the ecological validity of the measure, along with reports from parents indicating that behavioral displays seen during the assessment were typical of presentations in other environments and everyday situations. I'm merely sharing with you my own personal experience and facts.

I have no personal gain or incentive in making my own experiences up. I honestly wish I was wrong, because if i was, i would still be enjoying many beautiful hot wives, but i just don't like the dishonesty of it all. All my experiences seemed fake and disingenuous. Just wasn't for me. I prefer honest, openness and am all about the MRS; It doesn't appeal to me to be in a situation that is about getting some dude off because he enjoys seeing his wife or gf take a big dick. But i do believe this same dynamic applies in this situation as well, if you objectively look at it, considering the industry and scope of it all -- if you believe this was her own personal fetish and she was driving this, I'd love to sell you some ocean front property in Kansas.

I do agree that she did nothing illegal, but due to her job and circumstance in this day and age, she can't keep her job. This does ultimately affect her ability to teach students successfully. I seriously doubt she'd want to return to that environment as it seems toxic now. Her own words I dont care, honestly. I don't want to prick your balloon. I'm wrong. All good. How about this one? The color contrast, the taboo of it, the way it stretched me out… I was hooked and hubby loved watching me too". Or this one True queen of spades wife getting BBC. Stoic and Elmer Gantry like this.

Stoic , hunglowcolorado , Nosuportneeded and 1 other person like this. How insanely hot is this woman? Joined: Oct 25, Posts: 20 Likes Received: RoccoBD , Elmer Gantry and bertberp like this. Wow never heard of her before this - am going to see what I can find now! THere are quite a few site rips still up. Are we OK to use this thread to share what we find? You must log in or sign up to post here. Show Ignored Content. Your name or email address: Do you already have an account? No, create an account now. Rorty argued that pretrial publicity would prejudice a jury. News California News. Santa Cruz neurosurgeon and accused child rapist under high observation. Report an error Policies and Standards Contact Us. More in California News.

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