⒈ Gender Differences In Prison

Wednesday, October 13, 2021 3:33:05 AM

Gender Differences In Prison



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Jordan Peterson: Gender Differences Part I, Aggression

On three separate occasions, women provided a pre-activity, post-activity, and next-morning saliva sample. Thus, an anticipatory relationship exists between sexual behavior and testosterone. Testosterone values were higher post-intercourse compared to exercise, suggesting that engaging in sexual behavior may also influence hormone concentrations in women. Hens and roosters are different. Cows and bulls are different. Men and women are different. Even girls and boys are different. The behavior of boys and girls differs in many ways. Girls generally excel in verbal abilities relative to boys; boys are nearly twice as likely as girls to suffer from dyslexia reading difficulties and stuttering and nearly 4 times more likely to suffer from autism.

Boys are generally better than girls at tasks that require visuospatial abilities. Girls engage in nurturing behaviors more frequently than boys. Young men are twice as likely as young women to suffer from schizophrenia. Many sex differences, such as the difference in aggressiveness, persist throughout adulthood. For example, there are many more men than women serving prison sentences for violent behavior. The hormonal differences between men and women may account for adult sex differences that develop during puberty, but what accounts for behavioral sex differences among children prior to puberty and activation of their gonads?

Hormonal secretions from the developing gonads determine whether the individual develops in a male or female manner. The mammalian embryonic testes produce androgens, as well as peptide hormones, that steer the development of the body, central nervous system, and subsequent behavior in a male direction. The embryonic ovaries of mammals are virtually quiescent and do not secrete high concentrations of hormones. In the presence of ovaries, or in the complete absence of any gonads, morphological, neural, and, later, behavioral development follows a female pathway. The organizing effects of steroid hormones are relatively constrained to the early stages of development. An asymmetry exists in the effects of testes and ovaries on the organization of behavior in mammals.

Hormone exposure early in life has organizational effects on subsequent rodent behavior; early steroid hormone treatment causes relatively irreversible and permanent masculinization of rodent behavior mating and aggressive. These early hormone effects can be contrasted with the reversible behavioral influences of steroid hormones provided in adulthood, which are called activational effects. The activational effects of hormones on adult behavior are temporary and may wane soon after the hormone is metabolized.

Thus, typical male behavior requires exposure to androgens during gestation in humans or immediately after birth in rodents to somewhat masculinize the brain and also requires androgens during or after puberty to activate these neural circuits. Typical female behavior requires a lack of exposure to androgens early in life which leads to feminization of the brain and also requires estrogens to activate these neural circuits in adulthood. But this simple dichotomy, which works well with animals with very distinct sexual dimorphism in behavior, has many caveats when applied to people. If you walk through any major toy store, then you will likely observe a couple of aisles filled with pink boxes and the complete absence of pink packaging of toys in adjacent aisles.

Remarkably, you will also see a strong self-segregation of boys and girls in these aisles. The toy manufacturers are often accused of making toys that are gender biased, but it seems more likely that boys and girls enjoy playing with specific types and colors of toys. Indeed, toy manufacturers would immediately double their sales if they could sell toys to both sexes. Boys generally prefer toys such as trucks and balls and girls generally prefer toys such as dolls. It is reasonable to believe that children learn which types of toys and which styles of play are appropriate to their gender.

How can we understand and separate the contribution of physiological mechanisms from learning to understand sex differences in human behaviors? To untangle these issues, animal models are often used. Unlike the situation in humans, where sex differences are usually only a matter of degree often slight , in some animals, members of only one sex may display a particular behavior. As noted, often only male songbirds sing. Studies of such strongly sex-biased behaviors are particularly valuable for understanding the interaction among behavior, hormones, and the nervous system. Female vervet monkeys preferred girl-typical toys, such as dolls or cooking pots, whereas male vervet monkeys preferred boy-typical toys, such as cars or balls.

There were no sex differences in preference for gender-neutral toys, such as picture books or stuffed animals. Young rhesus monkeys also show similar toy preferences. What then underlies the sex difference in toy preference? It is possible that certain attributes of toys or objects appeal to either boys or girls. Toys that appeal to boys or male vervet or rhesus monkeys, in this case, a ball or toy car, are objects that can be moved actively through space, toys that can be incorporated into active, rough and tumble play.

The appeal of toys that girls or female vervet monkeys prefer appears to be based on color. Pink and red the colors of the doll and pot may provoke attention to infants. Society may reinforce such stereotypical responses to gender-typical toys. The sex differences in toy preferences emerge by 12 or 24 months of age and seem fixed by 36 months of age, but are sex differences in toy preference present during the first year of life? It is difficult to ask pre-verbal infants what they prefer, but in studies where the investigators examined the amount of time that babies looked at different toys, eye-tracking data indicate that infants as young as 3 months showed sex differences in toy preferences; girls preferred dolls, whereas boys preferred trucks.

Another result that suggests, but does not prove, that hormones are involved in toy preferences is the observation that girls diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH , whose adrenal glands produce varying amounts of androgens early in life, played with masculine toys more often than girls without CAH. Further, a dose-response relationship between the extent of the disorder i.

Are the sex differences in toy preferences or play activity, for example, the inevitable consequences of the differential endocrine environments of boys and girls, or are these differences imposed by cultural practices and beliefs? Are these differences the result of receiving gender-specific toys from an early age, or are these differences some combination of endocrine and cultural factors? Again, these are difficult questions to unravel in people. Even when behavioral sex differences appear early in development, there seems to be some question regarding the influences of societal expectations. One example is the pattern of human play behavior during which males are more physical; this pattern is seen in a number of other species including nonhuman primates, rats, and dogs.

Is the difference in the frequency of rough-and-tumble play between boys and girls due to biological factors associated with being male or female, or is it due to cultural expectations and learning? If there is a combination of biological and cultural influences mediating the frequency of rough-and-tumble play, then what proportion of the variation between the sexes is due to biological factors and what proportion is due to social influences? Sex differences are common in humans and in nonhuman animals. Because males and females differ in the ratio of androgenic and estrogenic steroid hormone concentrations, behavioral endocrinologists have been particularly interested in the extent to which behavioral sex differences are mediated by hormones.

The process of becoming female or male is called sexual differentiation. The primary step in sexual differentiation occurs at fertilization. In mammals, the ovum which always contains an X chromosome can be fertilized by a sperm bearing either a Y or an X chromosome; this process is called sex determination. The chromosomal sex of homogametic mammals XX is female; the chromosomal sex of heterogametic mammals XY is male. Chromosomal sex determines gonadal sex. Virtually all subsequent sexual differentiation is typically the result of differential exposure to gonadal steroid hormones.

Thus, gonadal sex determines hormonal sex, which regulates morphological sex. Morphological differences in the central nervous system, as well as in some effector organs, such as muscles, lead to behavioral sex differences. The process of sexual differentiation is complicated, and the potential for errors is present. Perinatal exposure to androgens is the most common cause of anomalous sexual differentiation among females. The source of androgen may be internal e.

Turner syndrome results when the second X chromosome is missing or damaged; these individuals possess dysgenic ovaries and are not exposed to steroid hormones until puberty. Interestingly, women with Turner syndrome often have impaired spatial memory. By studying individuals who do not neatly fall into the dichotic boxes of female or male and for whom the process of sexual differentiation is atypical, behavioral endocrinologists glean hints about the process of typical sexual differentiation. We may ultimately want to know how hormones mediate sex differences in the human brain and behavior to the extent to which these differences occur.

To understand the mechanisms underlying sex differences in the brain and behavior, we return to the birdsong example. In contrast to mammals, in which structural differences in neural tissues have not been directly linked to behavior, structural differences in avian brains have been directly linked to a sexually behavior: birdsong. Several brain regions in songbirds display significant sex differences in size. Two major brain circuit pathways, 1 the song production motor pathway and 2 the auditory transmission pathway, have been implicated in the learning and production of birdsong.

Some parts of the song production pathway of male zebra finches are 3 to 6 times larger than those of female conspecifics. The larger size of these brain areas reflects that neurons in these nuclei are larger, more numerous, and farther apart. Although castration of adult male birds reduces singing, it does not reduce the size of the brain nuclei controlling song production. Similarly, androgen treatment of adult female zebra finches does not induce changes either in singing or in the size of the song control regions. Thus, activational effects of steroid hormones do not account for the sex differences in singing behavior or brain nucleus size in zebra finches.

The sex differences in these structures are organized or programmed in the egg by estradiol masculinizes or the lack of steroids feminizes. Taken together, estrogens appear to be necessary to activate the neural machinery underlying the song system in birds. The testes of birds primarily produce androgens, which enter the circulation. The androgens enter neurons containing aromatase , which converts them to estrogens. Indeed, the brain is the primary source of estrogens, which activate masculine behaviors in many bird species. Sex differences in human brain size have been reported for years. We can solve these problems if we meet three requirements of an effective system.

Firstly, the punishment has to fit the crime. Secondly, it has to do more harm than good. And, thirdly similar crimes should be sentenced in the same way. Lichtenberg, J. This entry was posted on Monday, March 4th, at am and is filed under Uncategorized. You can follow any comments to this entry through the RSS 2. You can leave a comment , or trackback from your own site. One demographic in the US is disproportionately […]. It is true that the prison system is flawed in many ways, and I appreciate your stance on the unfair treatment of prisoners, both innocent and otherwise. However, the blame needs to be shared in part with our society. Perhaps it is the lack of prisoner reintegration programs that prepare them for life outside of prison that is to blame for poor choices that lead to reincarceration.

However, partially, it is our society that stigmatizes so heavily against individuals that have a criminal record and have served time in prison. Henceforth, excluding him or her from many job opportunities by stereotyping previous convicts as unreliable and unfit for the job. When society stigmatizes ex-convicts, it increases their chance of living in poverty and turning to criminal activities to obtain money that ultimately leads to reincarceration.

Overall, great post! For men as well, domestic violence is correlated with a higher risk of depression and suicidal behavior. Indeed, evidence shows that women who have been confronted to IPV or sexual violence report higher rates of depression, psychosis, abortion and acquiring HIV, than women who have not. Additionally, women who are at risk can develop suicidal thoughts, depression, PTSD and anxiety. Another study found that in a group of women in a psychiatric inpatient hospital ward, women who were survivors of domestic violence were twice as likely to suffer depression as those were not. Six of the women had attempted suicide. Moreover, the women spoke openly of a direct connection between the IPV they suffered and their resulting mental disorders.

The direct psychological effects of IPV may contribute directly to the development of these disorders. Some of the women discussed an undermining of their self-esteem, as well as an "overwhelming fear and erosion of their sense of safety. Humphreys and Thiara refer to these consequential mental disorders as "symptoms of abuse". That sentiment is echoed by some survivors who don't feel comfortable identifying with loaded diagnoses such as depression or PTSD. The National Coalition against Domestic Violence provides useful guidelines to distinguish between sexual violence and domestic violence. Sexual violence describes a sexually abusive behavior by a partner or non-partner that can result in rape and sexual assault.

Sometimes, in abusive relationships, sexual and domestic violence can intersect. Sexual violence increasingly impact adolescent girls who are subjected to forced sex, rape and sexual assault. Approximately 15 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 worldwide have experienced forced sex forced sexual intercourse or other sexual acts at some point in their life. Sexual assault , rape and sexual abuse are likely to impact a women's mental health on a short and long-term basis.

Many survivors are "mentally marked by this trauma and report flashbacks of their assault, and feelings of shame, isolation, shock, confusion, and guilt. Social media is highly prevalent and influential among the current generation of adolescents and young adults. When individuals self-objectify by comparing themselves to others on social media, it can lead to increased body shame and body surveillance. In turn, these behaviors can results in an increased risk for disordered eating. The effect of social media use on self-objectification is greater in female users. Consequently, women face a higher risk of developing in body dissatisfaction or unhealthy eating behaviors. A gender bias exists in the very treatment of mental disorders. According to a study by the World Health Organization , "doctors are more likely to diagnose depression in women compared with men, even when they have similar scores on standardized measures of depression or present with identical symptoms".

Alison Haggett argued in that there was less research devoted to mental health illness of men in Great Britain in the post-war era. She criticized that men's bad behavior is often labeled as toxic masculinity instead of examining the social and emotional reasons for that. As a result, "the mental health of men will remain poorly understood". Accordingly, gender stereotypes regarding the over-exposure of women to emotional problems and the higher risk of alcoholism among men, reinforce social stigma.

Men and women willingly or unwillingly internalize these stereotypes. This internalization is then a barrier to accurate diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. This phenomenon leads to a sort of self-fulfilling prophecy and traduces in patterns of help seeking for both men and women. Indeed, women are more likely to disclose mental health disorders to their physician while men are more likely to disclose problems with alcohol use. The diagnosis of hysteria is a bright example of a medical diagnosis that was once almost exclusively applied to women.

For hundred of years in Western Europe , hysteria was seen as an excess of emotion and a lack of self-control, that would mostly impact women. The diagnosis was used as a form of social labeling to discourage women from venturing outside of their role, that is a tool to take control over the increasing emancipation of women. Socioeconomic Status is a global term which refers to a person's income level, education and position in society. Most social science research agrees upon the fact that there is a negative relationship between socioeconomic status and mental illness , that is lower socio-economic status is correlated with higher level of mental illness. SES is a key factor in determining one's opportunities and quality of life. Inequities in wealth and quality of life for women are known to exist both locally and globally.

According to a survey of the U. S Census Bureau, in the United States, women's poverty rates are higher than men's. Indeed, "more than 1 in 7 women nearly When it comes to income and earning ability in the United States, women are once again at an economic disadvantage. Indeed, for a same level of education and an equivalent field of occupation, men earn a higher wage than women. Though the pay-gap has narrowed over time, according U. Increasing evidence tend to show a positive correlation between lower SES and negative mental health outcomes for women.

Firstly, "Pregnant women with low SES report significantly more depressive symptoms, which suggests that the third trimester may be more stressful for low-income women Goyal et al. Goyal et al. Secondly, women are often the primary care-taker for their families. As a result, women with insecure job and housing experience higher stress and anxiety since their precarious economic situation places them and their children at higher risk of poverty and violent victimization World Health Organization, Finally, a low socioeconomic status puts women at higher risk of domestic and sexual violence, therefore increasing their exposure to all the mental disorder associated with this trauma.

Indeed, "statistics show that poverty increases people's vulnerabilities to sexual exploitation in the workplace, schools, and in prostitution, sex trafficking, and the drug trade and that people with the lowest socioeconomic status are at greater risk for violence" Jewkes, Sen, Garcia-Moreno, Biological differences is a proposed mechanism contributing to observed gender differences in PTSD.

Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis has been proposed for both men and women. Studies suggest that higher levels of progesterone in women are associated with increased glucocorticoid availability, which may enhance consolidation and recall of distressful visual memories and intrusive thoughts. This dysregulation may occur as a result of the increased likelihood of women experiencing a traumatic event, as traumatic events have been known to contribute to HPA dysregulation. For PTSD, genders differences in coping mechanisms has been proposed as a potential explanation for observed gender differences in PTSD prevalence rates. For example, men are more likely than women to react using the fight-or-flight response.

These coping strategies have been found in research to correlate with an increased likelihood of developing PTSD. These described differences in coping mechanisms are in line with a preliminary model of sex-specific pathways to PTSD. The model, proposed by Christiansen and Elklit, [37] suggests that there are sex differences in the physiological stress response. In this model, variables such as dissociation, social support, and use of emotion-focused coping may be involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD in women, whereas physiological arousal, anxiety, avoidant coping, and use of problem-focused coping may be more likely to be related to the development and maintenance of PTSD in men.

For more about gender differences in coping mechanisms, see the Coping psychology page. Each individual has its own way to deal with difficult emotions and situations. Oftentimes, the coping mechanism adopted by a person, depending on whether they are safe or risky, will impact their mental health. These coping mechanisms tend to be developed during youth and early-adult life. Once a risky coping mechanism is adopted, it is often hard for the individual to get rid of it. Safe coping-mechanisms, when it comes to mental disorders, involve communication with others, body and mental health caring, support and help seeking.

These risky mechanisms involve strategies such as self-harm, substance abuse, or risky sexual behavior for many reasons, including; "attempting to get away from or not feel overwhelming emotions, gaining a sense of control, self-punishment, nonverbally communicating their struggles to others. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Gender is correlated with the prevalence of certain mental disorders. World Health Organization.

And why should we presume that we know how in Gender Differences In Prison manner to eliminate gender Gender Differences In Prison among Gender Differences In Prison children? Crime Education Leadership Social capital Suicide. Are the differences bigger Personal Narrative: My Trip To Frederik Meijer Garden some countries and smaller in others? People do not Gender Differences In Prison to be Gender Differences In Prison involved in a contest Gender Differences In Prison have their Gender Differences In Prison affected by the outcome of the contest. How might hormones affect behavior?