✎✎✎ One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest Mental Institution Analysis

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One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest Mental Institution Analysis

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Yellowstone could erupt tomorrow. But there's a very good chance that it will give US another million years, and that surely is enough to be going on with. It seems sensible to assume that this will be the case. The universe at large is dangerous, too: in particular, we share the sky with vast numbers of asteroids, and every now and again, they come into our planet's atmosphere. An asteroid the size of a small island, hitting the Earth at 15, kilometres an hour a relatively modest speed by the standards of heavenly bodies , would strike the ocean bed like a rock in a puddle, send a tidal wave around the world as high as a small mountain and as fast as a jumbo jet, and propel us into an ice age that could last for centuries.

There are plans to head off such disasters including rockets to push approaching asteroids into new trajectories , but in truth it's down to luck. On the other hand, the archaeological and the fossil evidence shows that no truly devastating asteroid has struck since the one that seems to have accounted for the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. So again, there seems no immediate reason for despair. The Earth is indeed an uncertain place, in an uncertain universe, but with average luck, it should do us well enough. If the world does become inhospitable in the next few thousand or million years, then it will probably be our own fault. In short, despite the underlying uncertainty, our own future and that of our fellow creatures is very much in our own hands.

Given average luck on the geological and the cosmic scale, the difference between glory and disaster will be made, and is being made, by politics. Certain kinds of political systems and strategies would predispose US to long-term survival and indeed to comfort and security and the pleasure of being alive , while others would take us more and more frenetically towards collapse.

The broad point is, though, that we need to look at ourselves - humanity - and at the world in general in a quite new light. Our material problems are fundamentally those of biology. We need to think, and we need our politicians to think, biologically. Do that, and take the ideas seriously, and we are in with a chance. Ignore biology and we and our fellow creatures haven't a hope. Questions Complete the summary below.

Write your answers in boxes cm your answer sheet The Earth could become uninhabitable, like other planets, through a major change in the Volcanic eruptions of An asteroid hitting the Earth could create a Plans are being made to use Question 26 Choose the correct letter. Excavations at the site of prehistoric Akrotiri, on the coast of the Aegean Sea, have revealed much about the technical aspects of pottery manufacture, indisputably one of the basic industries of this Greek city. However, considerably less is known about the socio-economic context and the way production was organised. The bulk of pottery found at Akrotiri is locally made, and dates from the late fifteenth century BC.

The pottery found includes a wide variety of functional types like storage jars, smaller containers, pouring vessels, cooking pots, drinking vessels and so on, which all relate to specific activities and which would have been made and distributed with those activities in mind. Given the large number of shapes produced and the relatively high degree of standardisation, it has generally been assumed that most, if not all, of Akrotiri pottery was produced by specialised craftsmen in a non-domestic context.

The reason may be that the ceramic workshops were located on the periphery of the site, which has not yet been excavated. In any event, the ubiquity of the pottery, and the consistent repetition of the same types in different sizes, suggest production on an industrial scale. We can imagine them as full-time craftsmen working permanently in a high production-rate craft such as pottery manufacture, and supporting themselves entirely from the proceeds of then craft. In view of the above, one can begin to speak in terms of mass-produced pottery and the existence of organised workshops of craftsmen during the period — BC.

Yet, how pottery production was organised at Akrotiri remains an open question, as there is no real documentary evidence. Our entire knowledge comes from the ceramic material itself, and the tentative conclusions which can be drawn from it. The invention of units of quantity and of a numerical system to count them was of capital importance for an exchange-geared society such as that of Akrotiri. In spite of the absence of any written records, the archaeological evidence reveals that concepts of measurements, both of weight and number, had been formulated.

Standard measures may already have been in operation, such as those evidenced by a graduated series of lead weights— made in disc form— found at the site. The existence of units of capacity in Late Bronze Age times is also evidenced, by the notation of units of a liquid measure for wine on excavated containers. It must be recognised that the function of pottery vessels plays a very important role in determining then characteristics. The intended function affects the choice of clay, the production technique, and the shape and the size of the pots. For example, large storage jars pithoi would be needed to store commodities, whereas smaller containers would be used for transport. The various sizes of container would thus represent standard quantities of a commodity, which is a fundamental element in the function of exchange.

Akrotirian merchants handling a commodity such as wine would have been able to determine easily the amount of wine they were transporting fiom the number of containers they carried in then ships, since the capacity of each container was known to be litres. We could draw a parallel here with the current practice in Greece of selling oil in 17 kilogram tins. We may therefore assume that the shape, capacity, and, sometimes decoration of vessels are indicative of the commodity contained by them.

In trying to reconstruct systems of capacity by measuring the volume of excavated pottery, a rather generous range of tolerances must be allowed. It seems possible that the potters of that time had specific sizes of vessel in mind, and tried to reproduce them using a specific type and amount of clay. However, it would be quite difficult for them to achieve the exact size required every time, without any mechanical means of regulating symmetry and wall thickness, and some potters would be more skilled than others. In addition, variations in the repetition of types and size may also occur because of unforeseen circumstances during the throwing process. For instance, instead of destroying the entire pot if the clay in the rim contained a piece of grit, a potter might produce a smaller pot by simply cutting off the rim.

Even where there is no noticeable external difference between pots meant to contain the same quantity of a commodity, differences in their capacity can actually reach one or two litres. In one case the deviation from the required size appears to be as much as percent. The establishment of regular trade routes within the Aegean led to increased movement of goods; consequently a regular exchange of local, luxury and surplus goods, including metals, would have become feasible as a result of the advances in transport technology. The increased demand for standardised exchanges, inextricably linked to commercial transactions, might have been one of the main factors which led to the standardisation of pottery production.

Thus, the whole network of ceramic production and exchange would have depended on specific regional economic conditions, and would reflect the socio-economic structure of prehistoric Akrotiri. Questions Choose the correct letter, A, B. What does die writer say about items of pottery excavated at Akrotiri? There was very little duplication. They would have met a big variety of needs. Most of them had been imported from other places. The intended purpose of each piece was unclear. The assumption that pottery from Akrotiri was produced by specialists is partly ' based on A. The discovery of kilns. The central location of workshops. The sophistication of decorative patterns.

The wide range of shapes represented. Questions Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below. Write the correct letter, A-F. The discovery of a collection of metal discs. The size and type of the sailing ships in use. Variations in the exact shape and thickness of similar containers. The physical characteristics of workmen. Marks found on wine containers. The variety of commodities for which they would have been used. Questions Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

There are plans to excavate new areas of the archaeological site in the near future. Some of the evidence concerning pottery production in ancient Akrotiri comes from written records. Pots for transporting liquids would have held no more than about 20 litres. It would have been hard for merchants to calculate how much wine was on their ships. The capacity of containers intended to hold the same amounts differed by up to 20 percent. Question Choose the correct letter, A. What does the writer say about the standardisation of container sizes?

Containers which looked the same from the outside often varied in capacity. The instruments used to control container size were unreliable. The unsystematic use of different types of clay resulted in size variations. Potters usually discarded containers which were of a non-standard size. What is probably the main purpose of Reading Passage 3? To evaluate the quality of pottery containers found in prehistoric Akrotiri.

To suggest how features of pottery production at Akrotiri reflected other developments in the region. To outline the development of pottery-making skills in ancient Greece. To describe methods for storing and transporting household goods in prehistoric societies. Leatherback turtles follow the general sea turtle body plan of having a large, flattened, round body with two pairs of very large flippers and a short tail. Like other sea turtles, the leatherback's flattened forelimbs are adapted for swimming in the open ocean. Claws are absent from both pairs of flippers. The Leatherback's flippers arc the largest in proportion to its body among extant sea turtles.

Leatherback's front flippers can grow up to 2. As the last surviving member of its family, the leatherback turtle has several distinguishing characteristics that differentiate it from other sea turtles. Its most notable feature is that it lacks the bony carapace of the other extant sea turtles. During the past month, four turtles have washed up along Irish coasts from Wexford to Kerry. These turtles arc more typical of warmer waters and only occur in Irish waters when they stray off course.

It is likely that they may have originated from Florida, America. Two specimens have been taken to Coastal and Marine Resources Centre stored at the National Maritime College , University College Cork, where a necropsy post mortem for animals will be conducted to establish their age, sex and their exact origin. During this same period, two leatherback turtles were found in Scotland, and a rare Kemp's Ridley turtle was found in Wales, thus making it an exceptional month for stranded turtles in Ireland and the UK.

In the water, their path is greatly affected by powerful currents. Despite their limited vision, and lack of landmarks in the open water, turtles are able to retrace their migratory paths. However, Loggerhead turtles are not normally found in Irish waters, because water temperatures here are far too cold for their survival. Instead, adult loggerheads prefer the warmers waters of the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and North America's east coast.

The four turtles that were found have probably originated from the North American population of loggerheads. However it will require genetic analysis to confirm this assumption. It is thought that after leaving their nesting beach as hatchlings when they measure 4. This remarkable round trip may take many years during which these tiny turtles grow by several centimetres a year.

Loggerheads may circulate around the North Atlantic several times before they settle in the coastal waters of Florida or the Caribbean. These four turtles were probably on their way around the Atlantic when they strayed a bit too far north from the Gulf Stream. Once they did, their fate was sealed, as the cooler waters of the North East Atlantic are too cold for loggerheads unlike leatherback turtles which have many anatomical and physiological adaptations to enable them to swim in our seas.

Once in cool waters, the body of a loggerhead begins to shut down as they get 'cold stunned', then get hypothermia and die. Leatherbacks are in immanent danger of extinction. A critical factor among others is the harvesting of eggs from nests. Valued as a food delicacy, Leatherback eggs are falsely touted to have aphrodisiacal properties in some cultures. The leatherback, unlike the Green Sea turtle, is not often killed for its meat; however, the increase in human populations coupled with the growing black market trade has escalated their egg depletion.

Scientists have estimated that there are only about 35, Leatherback turtles in the world. We are often unable to understand the critical impact a species has on the environment—that is, until that species becomes extinct. Some scientists now speculate that the Leatherback may play an important role in the recovery of diminishing fish populations. Since the Leatherback consumes its weight in jellyfish per day, it helps to keep Jellyfish populations in check. Jellyfish consume large quantities of fish larvae. The rapid decline in Leatherback populations over the last 50 years has been accompanied by a significant increase in jellyfish and a marked decrease in fish in our oceans.

Saving sea turtles is an International endeavor. Question Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below. Write appropriate numbers i-x in boxes 1 -6 on your answer sheet. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all. List of Headings i. Sea turtles are found in unusual locations ii. Unique features of the Leatherbacks iii. Methods used for routes tracking v. Predict the migration routes vi. Remains multiplicity within the species vii.

The progress of hatching viii. The fate of the lost turles ix. How trips suppose to look like? Factors leading to population decline 1. Paragraph c 3. Paragraph D 4. Paragraph E 5. Paragraph F 6. Paragraph G Question 7 Choose words from the passage to answer the questions How many Leatherback turtles are there in the world? What is the most noticeable difference between other sea turtles and leatherbacks? What candle therback turtles to die in Irish waters? Where did the four turtles probably come from? By which means can sea turtles retrace their migratory paths?

For what purpose are Green Sea turtles killed by people? What kind of species will benefits from a decline in Leatherback populations? Section 2 Corporate Social Responsibility Broadly speaking, proponents of CSR have used four arguments to make their case: moral obligation, sustainability, license to operate, and reputation. An excellent definition was developed in the s by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland and used by the World Business Council for Sustainable Devebpment "Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Finally, reputation is used by many companies to justify CSR initiatives on the grounds that they will improve a company's image, strengthen its brand, enliven morale, and even raise the value of its stock. To advance CSR, we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society while at the same time anchoring it in the strategies and activities of specific companies. Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential to a productive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attract customers but lower the internal costs of accidents.

Efficient utilization of land, water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive. Good government, the rub of law, and property rights are essential for efficiency and innovation. Strong regulatory standards protect both consumers and competitive companies from exploitation. Ultimately, a healthy society creates expanding demand for business, as more human needs are met and aspirations grow. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which it operates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary.

At the same time, a healthy society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes to creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time. Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk, was thought to be safe in the early s, given the scientific knowledge then available.

Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years before any company was held liable for the harms it can cause. No longer can companies be content to monitor only the obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifying evolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival. Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particular business.

Other social agendas are best left to those companies in other industries, NGOs, or government institutions that are better positioned to address them. The essential test that should guide CSR is not whether a cause is worthy but whether it presents an opportunity to create shared value— that is, a meaningful benefit for society that is also valuable to the business. Addressing social issues by creating shared value will lead to self-sustaining solutions that do not depend on private or government subsidies. When a well-run business applies its vast resources, expertise, and management talent to problems that it understands and in which it has a stake, it can have a greater impact on social good than any other institution or philanthropic organization.

The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: They specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. Effective corporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improve relations with local governments and other important constituencies. Their effect is inherently limited, however. Community colleges, with an enrollment of Microsoft recognizes, however, that community colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized, technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematic professional development programs to keep faculty up to date. In addition to contributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to colleges to assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create faculty development institutes.

Note that in this case, volunteers and assigned staff were able to use their core professional skills to address a social need, a far cry from typical volunteer programs. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefited many communities while having a direct—and potentially significant—impact on the company. At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot.

The most strategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its value proposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy. Consider Whole Foods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural and healthy food products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment. The company's sourcing emphasizes purchases from local farmers through each store's procurement process. Buyers screen out foods containing any of nearly common ingredients that the company considers unhealthy or environmentally damaging. The same standards apply to products made internally. Stores are constructed using a minimum of virgin raw materials. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centers for composting.

Whole Foods' vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels. Even the cleaning products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. And through its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal Compassion Foundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals. From Harvard business review Questions The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below.

Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes on your answer sheet. How CSR may help one business to expand ii. CSR in many aspects of a company's business iii. A CSR initiative without a financial gain iv. Lack of action by the state of social issues v. Drives or pressures motivate companies to address CSR vi. Companies applying CSR should be selective viii.

Reasons that business and society benefit each other Paragraph A Paragraph B Paragraph C Paragraph D Paragraph E Paragraph F Paragraph G Questions Summary Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet. Promotion of CSR requires the understanding of interdependence between business and society. Restrictions imposed by government and companies both protect consumers from being treated unfairly.

Improvement of the safety standard can reduce the Similarly society becomes pool of more human needs and aspirations. Questions Use the information in the passage to match the companies listed A-C with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A, B or C in boxes 26 on your answer sheet. List of companies A. General Electronics B. Microsoft C. Whole foods market NB: you may use any letter more than once The disposable waste The way company purchases as goods Helping the undeveloped Excessive cravings do not necessarily involve physical substances.

Gambling can become compulsive; sex can become obsessive. Most people admit to having a love-bate relationship with it. This occurs not only during dull conversations but during reasonably interesting ones just as well. Scientists have been studying the effects of television for decades, generally focusing on whether watching violence on TV correlates with being violent in real life. Less attention has been paid to the basic allure of the small screen—the medium, as opposed to the message.

Psychologists and psychiatrists formally define substance dependence as a disorder characterized by criteria that include spending a great deal of time using the substance; using it more often than one intends; thinking about reducing use or making repeated unsuccessful efforts to reduce use; giving up important social, family or occupational activities to use it; and reporting withdrawal symptoms when one stops using it. All these criteria can apply to people who watch a lot of television. That does not mean that watching television, in itself, is problematic. Television can teach and amuse; it can reach aesthetic heights; it can provide much needed distraction and escape. The difficulty arises when people strongly sense that they ought not to watch as much as they do and yet find themselves strangely unable to reduce their viewing.

Some knowledge of how the medium exerts its pull may help heavy viewers gain better control over their lives. The amount of time people spend watching television is astonishing. On average, individuals in the industrialized world devote three hours a day to the pursuit—fully half of their leisure time, and more than on any single activity save work and sleep. To some commentators, this devotion means simply that people enjoy TV and make a conscious decision to watch it. But if that is the whole story, why do so many people experience misgivings about how much they view?

In Gallup polls in and , two out of five adult respondents and seven out of 10 teenagers said they spent too much time watching TV. Other surveys have consistently shown that roughly 10 percent of adults call themselves TV addicts. What is it about TV that has such a hold on US? It is part of our evolutionary heritage, a built- in sensitivity to movement and potential predatory threats. In Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri and their colleagues began to study whether the simple formal features of television-cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noises—activate the orienting response, thereby keeping attention on the screen.

It is the form, not the content, of television that is unique. In ads, action sequences and music videos, formal features frequently come at a rate of one per second, thus activating the orienting response continuously. In one of their studies, participants watched a program and then filled out a score sheet. Increasing the frequency of edits defined here as a change from one camera angle to another in the same visual scene improved memory recognition, presumably because it focused attention on the screen. Increasing the frequency of cuts—changes to a new visual scene-had a similar effect but only up to a point.

If the number of cuts exceeded 10 in two minutes, recognition dropped off sharply. Producers of educational television for children have found that formal features can help learning. But increasing the rate of cuts and edits eventually overloads the brain. Music videos and commercials that use rapid intercutting of unrelated scenes are designed to hold attention more than they are to convey information.

People may remember the name of the product or band, but the details of the ad itself float in one ear and out the other. The orienting response is overworked. Viewers still attend to the screen, but they feel tired and worn out, with little compensating psychological reward. Our ESM findings show much the same thing. Sometimes the memory of the product is very subtle.

Many ads today are deliberately oblique: they have an engaging story line, but it is hard to tell what they are trying to sell. Afterward you may not remember the product consciously. Yet advertisers believe that if they have gotten your attention, when you later go to the store you will feel better or more comfortable with a given product because you have a vague recollection of having heard of it.

You should spend about 20 minutes on question , which are based on reading passage 3 on the following pages. Questions Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage? Even researcher find sometimes it is more interesting in watching TV than talking with others in personal experience Information medium as TV has always been the priority for scientific research. Children do not know why they exercise too little. Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet. Match each researcher with the correct statements. Write the correct letter A-G in boxes on your answer sheets. It is the specific media formal characteristic that counts.

TV distraction shows human physical reaction to a new and prompted stimulus C. Conveying information is the most important thing. It is hard to ignore the effects of TV. Whether people can remember deeper of the content relates with the format. The heart rate remains stable when watching. Clinically reliance on TV does not meet the criteria of an addiction. Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet TV is becoming a worldwide According to some surveys, a small group even claim themselves as One researcher believes that this attraction comes from our human instinct, described as The reality was that in the 18th century no one had ever made a clock that could suffer the great rolling and pitching of a ship and the large changes in temperature whilst still keeping time accurately enough to be of any use.

Indeed, most of the scientific community thought such clock impossibility. The longitude is a measure of how far around the world one has come from home and has no naturally occurring base line like the equator. The crew of a given ship was naturally only concerned with how far round they were from their own particular home base. Even when in the middle of the ocean, with no land in sight, knowing this longitude position is very simple in theory. The key to knowing how far around the world you are from home is to know, at that very moment, what time it is back home. A comparison with your local time easily found by checking the position of the Sim will then tell you the time difference between you and home, and thus how far round the Earth you are from home.

The angular position of Moon and other bright stars was recorded in three-hour intervals of Greenwich Time. In order to determine longitude, sailors had to measure the angle between Moon centre and a given star - lunar distance - together with height of both planets using the naval sextant. Time corresponding to Greenwich Time was determined using the nautical almanac.

Then the difference between the obtained time and local time served for calculation in longitude from Greenwich. The obvious and again simple answer is that he takes an accurate clock with him, which he sets to home time before leaving. If the solution was to be by timekeeper and there were other methods since the prize was offered for any solution to the problem , then the timekeeping required to achieve this goal would have to be within 2. During the latter part of his early career, he worked with his younger brother James. Their first major project was a revolutionary turret clock for the stables at Brocklesby Park, seat of the Pelham family. The clock was revolutionary because it required no lubrication. Rather than concentrating on improvements to the oil, Harrison designed a clock which didn't need it.

In Harrison created a description and drawings for a proposed marine clock to compete for the Longitude Prize and went to London seeking financial assistance. He presented his ideas to Edmond Halley, the Astronomer Royal. Halley referred him to George Graham, the country's foremost clockmaker. He must have been impressed by Harrison, for Graham personally loaned Harrison money to build a model of his marine clock.

He demonstrated it to members of the Royal Society who spoke on his behalf to the Board of Longitude. The clock was the first proposal that the Board considered to be worthy of a sea trial. In , G. After several attempts to design a betterment of HI, Harrison believed that the ' solution to the longitude problem lay in an entirely different design. H4 is completely different from the other three timekeepers. It looks like a very large pocket watch.

It was a remarkable achievement but it would be some time before the Board of Longitude was sufficiently satisfied to award Harrison the prize. John Hadley, an English mathematician, developed sextant, who was a competitor of Harrison at that time for the luring prize. A sextant is an instrument used for measuring angles, for example between the sun and the horizon, so that the position of a ship or aeroplane can be calculated. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation.

The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the Lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object e. The majority within this next generation of chronometer pioneers were English, but the story is by no means wholly that of English achievement. One French name, Pierre Le Roy of Paris, stands out as a major presence in the early history of the chronometer. It was Eamshaw who created the final form of chronometer escapement, the spring detent escapement, and finalized the format and the production system for the marine chronometer, making it truly an article of commerce, and a practical means of safer navigation at sea over the next century and half.

Questions The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-I. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A- I, in boxes on your answer sheet. NB: you may use any letter more than once 1. It is with no great effort by sailors to calculate the position when in the center of the ocean theoretically. To determine the longitude, a measurement of distance from moon to a given star is a must. In theory, by calculating the longitude degrees covered by a sail journey, the distance between the start and the end points can be obtained.

Hundred years ago, sailors tried to identify their time by checking the sun or stars, but the trouble was that they did need a reliable clock which showed time of And the timekeeper required would be to precisely tell a tangible time lapse confined to An extraordinary craftsman, Harrison, once created a novel clock which did not rely on Later on, competitive mode of Base on Harrison's effort, Earns haw eventually implement key components for Section 2 Father of modern management A. Widely considered as the father of "modem management," he wrote 39 books and countless scholarly and popular articles exploring how humans are organized in all sectors of society—business, government and the nonprofit world.

His writings have predicted many of the major developments of the late twentieth century, including privatization and decentralization; the rise of Japan to a world economic power; the decisive importance of marketing; and the emergence of the information society with its necessity of lifelong learning. Drucker has said that writing is die foundation of everything he does. In , he published his first book, which was written in Europe. In , before the United States entered World War n, he wrote The Future of Industrial Man, in which he presented his social vision for the postwar world. In , General Motors asked Drucker to study its management practices. Drucker accepted and spent 18 months researching and writing the book.

Concept of the Corporation. The concepts Drucker introduced in the s and s have endured. In , Drucker wrote his first book that taught people how to manage. Management by objectives require managers to establish goals for theft subordinates and devise means of measuring results. Workers are then left alone to perform as they will and measure theft performance. Drucker wrote, "It is not possible to be effective unless one first decides what one wants to accomplish.

He went on to explain that every worker must be given the tools "to appraise himself, rather than be appraised and controlled from the outside. Management by objectives has become an accepted business concept and is probably Drucker's most important contribution. Drucker issued challenges to junior, middle and senior management: 'The very term "middle management" is becoming meaningless [as some] will have to learn how to work with people over whom they have no direct line control, to work transnationally, and to create, maintain, and run systems-none of which are traditionally middle management tasks. Drucker interviewed executives and workers, visited plants, and attended board meetings. While the book focused on General Motors, Drucker went on to discuss the industrial corporation as a social institution and economic policy in the postwar era.

He introduced previously unknown concepts such as cooperation between labor and management, decentralization of management, and viewing workers as resources rather than costs. Drucker saw people as a resource, and considered that they would be more able to satisfy customers if they had more involvement in then jobs and gained some satisfaction from doing them. This concept of management by objectives forms the keynote of his landmark The Practice of Management. He referred to decentralization as 'a system of local self government, in which central management tells division managers what to do, but not how to do it. The young executives are given the freedom to make decisions — and mistakes — and learn from the experience. Top leaders at General Motors disliked the book and discouraged their executives from reading it.

Many other American executives criticized Concept for its challenge to management authority. Drucker wasn't immune to criticism. The Wall Street Journal researched several of his lectures in and reported that he was sometimes loose with facts. Drucker was off the mark, for example, when he told an audience that English was the official language for all employees at Japan's Mitsui trading company. And he was known for his prescience. Specifically, critics say that the system is difficult to implement, and that companies often wind up overemphasizing control, as opposed to fostering creativity, to meet their goals. Drucker didn't shy away from controversy, either. Throughout his career, Drucker expanded his position that management was "a liberal art " and he infused his management advice with interdisciplinary lessons including history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, culture and religion.

He also strongly believed that all institutions, including those in the private sector, had a responsibility for the whole society. If the managers of our major institutions, especially in business, do not take responsibility for the common good, no one else can or will. Others include a decreasing birth rate in developed countries, a shift in population from rural to urban centers, shifts in distribution of disposable income and global competitiveness. Drucker believes these changes will have a tremendous impact on business. Business "gums" have come and gone during the last 50 years, but Drucker's message continues to inspire managers. In Managing for the Future: The s and Beyond , Drucker discussed the emergence of the "knowledge worker" — whose resources include specialized learning or competency rather than land, labor or other forms of capital.

Questions Reading Passage 2 has 6 paragraphs A-F. Choose die correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number: i-x, in boxes on your answer sheet List of Headings i. Introducing new management concepts to postwar era ii. Ideas that stood the test of time iii. Early publications iv. Shifting the focus of management in modem manufactures v.

Thinker and scholar with world-wide popularity vi. The changing role of employees in management viii. Find fault with Drucker ix. Paragraph c Drucker believed the employees should enjoy the same status as the employers in a company Drucker strongly support that economists of schools have resources to explain the problems of modem economies at least in a macroeconomics scope Write your answers in boxes 24 and 25 on your answer sheet. Managers should be responsible for the common good of the whole society. Young executives should be given chances to start from low level jobs C. More emphasis should be laid on fostering the development of the union. Management should facilitate workers with tools of self-appraisal instead of controlling them from the outside. Write your answers in boxes 26 and 27 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following are mentioned in the passage as criticisms to Drucker and his views? His lectures are too broad and lack of being precise and accurate about the facts, C. His concepts helped corporate executives but not average workers. His ideas are sometimes impractical and result in opposite outcomes. He was overstating the case for knowledge workers when warning businesses to get prepared. Section 3 Extinct: the Giant Deer Toothed cats, mastodons, giant sloths, woolly rhinos, and many other big, shaggy mammals are widely thought to have died out around the end of the last ice age, some 10, years ago. The Irish elk is also known as the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus.

Analysis of ancient bones and teeth by scientists based in Britain and Russia show the huge herbivore survived until about 5, B. The research team says this suggests additional factors, besides climate change, probably hastened the giant deer's eventual extinction. The factors could include hunting or habitat destruction by humans. The Irish elk, so-called because its well-preserved remains are often found in lake sediments under peat bogs in Ireland, first appeared about , years ago in Europe and central Asia. Through a combination of radiocarbon dating of skeletal remains and the mapping of locations where the remains were unearthed, the team shows the Irish elk was widespread across Europe before the last "big freeze.

He added that pollen analysis indicates the region then became very dry in response to further climactic change, leading to the loss of important food plants. Hunting by humans has often been put forward as a contributory cause of extinctions of the Pleistocene mega fauna. The team, though, said their new date for the Irish elk's extinction hints at an additional human-made problem—habitat destruction. Lister said, "We haven't got just hunting 7, years ago—this was also about the time the first Neolithic people settled in the region.

They were farmers who would have cleared the land. Meanwhile, Lister cast doubt on another possible explanation for the deer's demise—the male's huge antlers. Some scientists have suggested this exaggerated feature—the result of females preferring stags with the largest antlers, possibly because they advertised a male's fitness —contributed to the mammal's downfall. They say such antlers would have been a serious inconvenience in the dense forests that spread northward after the last ice age.

But, Lister said, "That's a hard argument to make, because the deer previously survived perfectly well through wooded interglacials [warmer periods between ice ages]. High amounts of calcium and phosphate compounds are required to form antlers, and therefore large quantities of these minerals are required for the massive structures of the Irish Elk. The males and male deer in general met this requirement partly from their bones, replenishing them from food plants after the antlers were grown or reclaiming the nutrients from discarded antlers as has been observed in extant deer.

Thus, in the antler growth phase. Giant Deer were suffering from a condition similar to osteoporosis. The extinction of megafauna around the world was almost completed by the end of the last ice age. It is believed that megafauna initially came into existence in response to glacial conditions and became extinct with the onset of warmer climates. Tropical and subtropical areas have experienced less radical climatic change. The most dramatic of these changes was the transformation of a vast area of north Africa into the world's largest desert.

Significantly, Africa escaped major faunal extinction as did tropical and sub-tropical Asia. The human exodus from Africa and our entrance into the Americas and Australia were also accompanied by climate change. Australia's climate changed from cold-dry to warm-dry. As a result, surface water became scarce. Most inland lakes became completely dry or dry in the warmer seasons. Most large, predominantly browsing animals lost their habitat and retreated to a narrow band in eastern Australia, where there was permanent water and better vegetation.

Some animals may have survived until about years ago. If people have been in Australia for up to 60 years, then megafauna must have co-existed with humans for at least 30 years. Regularly hunted modem kangaroos survived not only 10 years of Aboriginal hunting, but also an onslaught of commercial shooters. The group of scientists led by A. Stuart focused on northern Eurasia, which he was taking as Europe, plus Siberia, essentially, where they 've got the best data that animals became extinct in Europe during the Late Pleistocene.

Some cold-adapted animals, go through into the last part of the cold stage, and then become extinct up there. So you've actually got two phases of extinction. Now, neither of these coincide — these are Neanderthals here being replaced by modem humans. There's no obvious coincidence between the arrival of humans or climatic change alone and these extinctions. There's a climatic change here, so there's a double effect here. Again, as animals come through to the last part of the cold stage, here there's a fundamental change in the climate, reorganization of vegetation, and the combination of the climatic change and the presence of humans -- of advanced Paleolithic humans — causes this wave of extinction.

There's a profound difference between the North American data and that of Europe, which summarize that the extinctions in northern Eurasia, in Europe, are moderate and staggered, and in North America severe and sudden. And these things relate to the differences in the timing of human arrival. The extinctions follow from human predation, but only at times of fundamental changes in the environment. Questions Answer the questions below. What kind of physical characteristics eventually contributed to the extinction of Irish elk? What kind of nutrient substance needed in maintaining the huge size of Irish elk? What geographical evidence suggested the advent of human resulted in the extinction of Irish elk?

Questions Matching choose the letter A-D and fill in box A. Eurasia B. Australia C. Asia D. Which statement is true according the Stuart team's finding? Neanderthals rather than modem humans caused the extinction in Europe B. Paleolithic humans in Europe along kill the big animals such as Giant deer C. Onion growers in eastern Oregon are adopting a system that saves water and keeps topsoil in place, while producing the highest quality "super colossal" onions. Pear growers in southern Oregon have reduced their use of some of the most toxic pesticides by up to two-thirds, and are still producing top-quality pears. These are some of the results Oregon growers have achieved in collaboration with Oregon State University OSU researchers as they test new farming methods including integrated pest management IPM.

Nationwide, however, IFM has not delivered results comparable to those in Oregon. A recent U. S General Accounting Office GAO report indicates that while integrated pest management can result in dramatically reduced pesticide use, the federal government has been lacking in effectively promoting that goal and implementing IPM. Farmers also blame the government for not making the new options of pest management attractive. Green action groups disagree about the safety issue. Department of Agriculture and Oregon farmers to help develop agricultural systems that will save water and soil, and reduce pesticides. In response to the GAO report, the Centre is putting even more emphasis on integrating research and farming practices to improve Oregon agriculture environmentally and economically.

The work coming from OSU researchers must be adopted in the field and not simply languish in scientific journals. In Oregon, growers and scientists are working together to instigate new practices. For example, a few years ago scientists at OSU's Malheur Experiment Station began testing a new drip irrigation system to replace old ditches that wasted water and washed soil and fertilizer into streams. The new system cut water and fertilizer use by half, kept topsoil in place and protected water quality. In addition, the new system produced crops of very large onions, rated "super colossal" and highly valued by the restaurant industry and food processors.

The new practices benefit the environment and give the growers their success. OSU researchers in Malheur next tested straw mulch and found that it successfully held soil in place and kept the ground moist with less irrigation. In addition, and unexpectedly, the scientists found that the mulched soil created a home for beneficial beetles and spiders that prey on onion thrips - a notorious pest in commercial onion fields - a discovery that could reduce the need for pesticides.

OSU researchers throughout the state have been working to reduce dependence on broad spectrum chemical sprays that are toxic to many kind of organisms, including humans. Picture perfect pears are an important product in Oregon and traditionally they have required lots of chemicals. In recent years, the industry has faced stiff competition from overseas producers, so any new methods that growers adopt must make sense economically as well as environmentally. The patients drink and have fun, but the resulting mess brings more cruelty from Nurse Ratched that leads to tragedy.

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a drama that asks serious questions about mental illness, freedom, and related issues. Although the underlying subject matter is grim, the film is leavened with humor and enlivened by great performances. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest provided his first win. Louis Fletcher has appeared in over movie and television productions. Although One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest yielded her only Oscar nomination, she was nominated for an Emmy for her work as a guest actress in the s TV series Picket Fences and again for her appearance in the series Joan of Arcadia.

Hauben was a writer and occasional actor; he appeared in the movie Point Blank. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest was his only screenwriting credit. Goldman is a prolific and much-honored screenwriter. He received another Oscar for his original screenplay for Melvin and Howard He was also nominated for his adapted screenplay for 's Scent of a Woman. He was also nominated for The People vs. Larry Flynt Amadeus won four of the Big Five awards, missing out only on the prize for Best Actress.

It was distributed by Orion. Hannibal Lecter Anthony Hopkins , a brilliant but psychopathic psychiatrist turned serial killer, in hopes of having Lecter profile Buffalo Bill. Lecter is incarcerated in an ultra-secure cell in the Baltimore Hospital for the Criminally Insane. Starling travels to Baltimore and meets with Lecter, who initially refuses her attempts to obtain information but eventually offers to give her clues and insights about Buffalo Bill in exchange for Starling revealing information about herself. The manhunt for Buffalo Bill intensifies with the abduction of a U. Since Lecter has been seeking a transfer to another facility, Starling is authorized to pretend that he will be transferred in return for additional help in catching Buffalo Bill.

However, Dr. Frederick Chilton Anthony Heald , who is in charge of Lecter, undercuts Starling with a deal of his own and transfers Lecter to Memphis, where Lecter provides information about Buffalo Bill to federal agents. When Starling visits Lecter in Memphis and reveals more information about her childhood, Lecter gives her annotated case files on Buffalo Bill. Starling's analysis of his notes brings her closer to finding Buffalo Bill, but her visit also puts her at risk from Lecter. The Silence of the Lambs is a thriller in which the tension builds from beginning to end. Like Clarice Starling, the audience is both horrified and fascinated by the psychopathic Lecter. Even with repeat viewings, the movie does not disappoint. He has appeared in numerous memorable films since his debut in His performance as Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs was ranked number one on the American Film Institute's list of greatest screen villains.

Jodie Foster began acting as a child; at age 12, she received her first Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role as a prostitute in Taxi Driver Foster was again nominated for her work in Nell A graduate of Yale University, Foster was touched by tragedy during her freshman year when obsessive fan John Hinckley attempted to assassinate U. President Ronald Reagan to impress her.

Photo by Alan Light. Playwright and screenwriter Ted Tally adapted the screenplay for The Silence of the Lambs from the novel of the same name by Thomas Harris. Tally has written the screenplays for seven theatrical and TV films, including the Hannibal Lecter prequel Red Dragon In addition to numerous awards for the screenplay for The Silence of the Lambs , Tally won several critics' awards for his screenplay for All the Pretty Horses Jonathan Demme directed numerous feature films, documentaries, and music videos. Each year the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences recognizes many films and their creators for excellence in numerous categories.

Just being among the nominees is an honor. These three winners of the Big Five awards are among the best of the best. See them for yourself! There have been 43 films in total that have been nominated for all Big 5 Oscars. Here are the other 40 films that received nominations. Kramer vs. Kramer is a fantastic legal drama that won four of the Big Five Oscars. However, it did not receive a nomination for all five awards; it did not get a Best Actress nomination. However, this is not always the case. Here are the Best Picture winners that did not even receive a nomination for Best Director.

Here are the films that received nominations for all Big Five Oscars but failed to win any of them. The record for most Oscar wins is currently tied between three films. The record currently stands at 11 awards. The record for most Oscar nominations is currently at This feat has been accomplished by three films. What a great article! I'll have to check out It Happened One Night. I haven't seen that one. For a couple of minutes, it looked like it had also won Best Picture, but after an historic mixup, that award went to Moonlight. So each of those three movies won two of the Big 5 which of course is possible because the Big 5 can include either Original Screenplay or Adapted Screenplay.

Nice job by the Academy in spreading the awards around among some very deserving films. As anticipated, "La La Land" received nominations in all five of the Big 5 categories. There's some strong competition for the awards, of course, but there is a real chance that it could join the list of Big 5 winners. I'll be watching on February 26th! Jim, Kramer vs. Kramer came close! Could this be the year that another movie joins this exclusive list?

Lots of other great contenders for all five awards, of course, but "La La Land" has one of the best chances in years to pull this off. I recall being a little frightened back then with Nicholson's character role. Still a great movie worth of many awards. These three are great. But there are lots of lists of other Oscar winners online. Many choices, depending on your taste. The 87th Academy Award nominations included three movies with nominations in four of the five "big" categories, but no movie captured nominations in all five categories. Although I haven't done a comprehensive study, I'd guess that Best Actress is usually the category that prevents many movies from scoring nominations for the Big Five across the board.

If that is in fact true, why is it so hard to make a movie with equally strong male and female lead roles? The Academy Award nominations have been announced. Just like last year, a movie directed by David O. Russell has a chance to add its name to this rarefied list of winners. I loved this movie, and I would be happy to see it sweep the Big Five Oscars plus the two Supporting categories! But do I think it will? No, not likely. What do you think? Writer Fox, thanks for reading and for your comment and vote. I remember seeing it in the theater when it first came out With another awards year completed, the three previous Big Five winners have no new company.

The nominations have been announced, and although "Lincoln" leads with 12 nominations, it's "Silver Linings Playbook" that has a chance to join this list of movies winning the Big 5 Oscars. Russell , and Best Adapted Screenplay. Now the question is, can "Silver Linings Playbook" sweep the Big 5 awards to join this list? My money says no, but you never know. James, I appreciate your comment. As the end of the year approaches, I am looking forward to seeing if any of this year's movies will have a chance to join the list. I enjoyed your excellent Hub.

There is no doubt but that these three are outstanding films. Thanks for a good read. Thanks, Simon. I am still surprised that only three movies have ever achieved this sweep of the big five awards.

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