✎✎✎ Composer Of Lohengrin

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Composer Of Lohengrin



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Joe Illick - Notes on Music - Wagner - Lohengrin

By 3 August he had worked out the prose draft. Wagner, with his head in a whirl, wrote to his brother, Albert, the following day, 4 August Between May and June , Wagner made a through-composed draft for the whole work that consisted of only two staves: one for the voice, the other just indicating the harmonies. Coterminously, Wagner began work on a second draft of the poem, beginning with act 3. The complete draft of act 3 was completed before the second draft of acts 1 and 2. This has sometime led to the erroneous conclusion that the entire work was completed from the end to the front.

On 9 September Wagner began to elaborate the instrumental and choral parts, which, along with the Prelude, was completed on 29 August Numerous changes to the poem, particularly act 3, took place during work on the second draft. At this time Wagner was still trying to clarify the precise nature of the tragedy, and the extent to which he needed to spell out the mechanics of the tragedy to the audience. On 30 May Wagner wrote to the journalist Hermann Franck [ de ] regarding the relationship between Lohengrin and Elsa. Wagner uses the letter firstly to argue in favour of his version and secondly to expand upon the more general mythical structure underpinning the relationship between Lohengrin and Elsa - a theme he would publicly develop in his autobiographical essay A Communication To My Friends.

To this end, Wagner decided not to alter act 1 or 2 but to write new lines in act O Elsa! Was hast du mir angethan? Wagner asks Franck if he should explicitly mention the specific rule associated with the Grail which, although not expressly forbidding the Grail knights from committing such excesses, nevertheless, discourages them from acting in this way. Wagner's opinion is that it should be sufficient for the audience to deduce the Grail's advice. There's one atonement, penance for your crime! I as you suffer this cruel pain! We must be parted!

You must understand: this the atonement, this the Grail's command! Having completed the second complete draft of act 3 ten months later on 5 March , Wagner returned to the beginning of act 1 and began work on the second draft of act 1 on 12 May and which was complete on 8 June The second complete draft of act 2 was started on 18 June and complete on 2 August In a letter to Ferdinand Heine dated 6 August , Wagner announced that he had completed the Lohengrin opera:. As outlined to Heine, Wagner's plan was to build on the success of the premiere of Rienzi in Berlin on 24 October with a follow-up performance of Lohengrin.

As it turned out Rienzi in Berlin was not a success and Lohengrin was not performed there until Composition of the full score began three months later on 1 January , and by 28 April the composition of Lohengrin was complete. Lohengrin occupies an ambivalent position within Wagner's aesthetic oeuvre. The first production of Lohengrin was in Weimar , Germany, on 28 August at the Staatskapelle Weimar under the direction of Franz Liszt , a close friend and early supporter of Wagner.

Liszt chose the date in honour of Weimar's most famous citizen, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , who was born on 28 August Wagner himself was unable to attend the first performance, having been exiled because of his part in the May Uprising in Dresden. Although he conducted various extracts in concert in Zurich, London, Paris and Brussels, it was not until in Vienna that he was able to attend a full performance. The opera's first performance outside German-speaking lands was in Riga on 5 February Mallinger also took the role of Elsa in the work's premiere at the Berlin State Opera on 6 April It was notably the first performance of any Wagner opera in Italy.

The Metropolitan Opera mounted the opera for the first time on 7 November , in Italian, during the company's inaugural season. The first Chicago performance of the opera took place at the Auditorium Building now part of Roosevelt University on 9 November It received 6 performances in its first season in the opera house that Wagner built for the presentation of his works. The people of the Duchy of Brabant are divided by quarrels and political infighting; also, a devious hostile power left over from the region's pagan past is seeking to subvert the prevailing monotheistic government and to return the Duchy to pagan rule.

A mysterious knight, sent by God and possessing superhuman charisma and fighting ability, arrives to unite and strengthen the people, and to defend the innocent noble woman Elsa from a false accusation of murder, but he imposes a condition: the people must follow him without knowing his identity. Elsa in particular must never ask his name, or his heritage, or his origin. The conspirators attempt to undermine her faith in her rescuer, to create doubt among the people, and to force him to leave. King Henry the Fowler has arrived in Brabant , where he has assembled the German tribes in order to expel the marauding Hungarians from his dominions.

He also needs to settle a dispute involving the disappearance of the child-Duke Gottfried of Brabant. The Duke's guardian, Count Friedrich von Telramund, has accused the Duke's older sister, Elsa, of murdering her brother in order to become Duchess of Brabant. Telramund calls upon the King to punish Elsa and to make him the new Duke of Brabant. The King calls for Elsa to answer Telramund's accusation. The King declares that he cannot resolve the matter and will leave it to God's judgment through ordeal by combat.

Telramund, a strong and seasoned warrior, agrees enthusiastically. When the King asks Elsa who shall be her champion, Elsa describes a knight she has beheld in her dreams "Des Ritters will ich wahren". Twice the Herald calls for a champion to step forward, but gets no response. Elsa kneels and prays that God may send her champion to her. A boat drawn by a swan appears on the river and in it stands a knight in shining armour. He disembarks, dismisses the swan, respectfully greets the king, and asks Elsa if she will have him as her champion and marry him.

Elsa kneels in front of him and places her honour in his keeping. He asks only one thing in return for his service: Elsa must never ask him his name or where he has come from. Telramund's supporters advise him to withdraw because he cannot prevail against the Knight's powers, but he proudly refuses. The chorus prays to God for victory for the one whose cause is just. Ortrud, Telramund's wife, does not join the prayer, but privately expresses confidence that Telramund will win.

The combat commences. Taking Elsa by the hand, he declares her innocent. The crowd exits, cheering and celebrating. Telramund and Ortrud, banished from court, listen unhappily to the distant party-music. Ortrud reveals that she is a pagan witch daughter of Radbod Duke of Frisia , and tries to revive Telramund's courage, assuring him that her people and he are destined to rule the kingdom again. She plots to induce Elsa to violate the mysterious knight's only condition. When Elsa appears on the balcony before dawn, she hears Ortrud lamenting and pities her. As Elsa descends to open the castle door, Ortrud prays to her pagan gods, Wodan and Freia , for malice, guile, and cunning, in order to deceive Elsa and restore pagan rule to the region.

Ortrud warns Elsa that since she knows nothing about her rescuer, he could leave at any time as suddenly as he came, but Elsa is sure of the Knight's virtues. The two women go into the castle. Left alone outside, Telramund vows to bring about the Knight's downfall. The sun rises and the people assemble. The Herald announces that Telramund is now banished, and that anyone who follows Telramund shall be considered an outlaw by the law of the land. In addition, he announces that the King has offered to make the unnamed knight the Duke of Brabant; however, the Knight has declined the title, and prefers to be known only as " Protector of Brabant".

In the back of the crowd, four noblemen quietly express misgivings to each other because the Knight has rescinded their privileges and is calling them to arms. Telramund secretly draws the four noblemen aside and assures them that he will regain his position and stop the Knight, by accusing him of sorcery. As Elsa and her attendants are about to enter the church, Ortrud rushes to the front of the procession and challenges Elsa to explain who the Knight is and why anyone should follow him. Their conversation is interrupted by the entrance of the King with the Knight. Elsa tells both of them that Ortrud was interrupting the ceremony. The King tells Ortrud to step aside, then leads Elsa and the Knight toward the church. Just as they are about to enter the church, Telramund enters.

He claims that his defeat in combat was invalid because the Knight did not give his name trial by combat traditionally being open only to established citizens , then accuses the Knight of sorcery. He demands that the Knight must reveal his name; otherwise the King should rule the trial by combat invalid. The Knight refuses to reveal his identity and claims that only one person in the world has the right to make him do so: his beloved Elsa, and she has pledged not to exercise that right. Elsa, though visibly shaken and uncertain, assures him of her confidence. King Henry refuses Telramund's questions, and the nobles of Brabant and Saxony praise and honor the Knight.

Elsa falls back into the crowd where Ortrud and Telramund try to intimidate her, but the Knight forces them both to leave the ceremony, and consoles Elsa. Elsa takes one last look at the banished Ortrud, then enters the church with the wedding procession. Elsa and her new husband are ushered in with the well-known bridal chorus , and they express their love for each other. Ortrud's words, however, have made an impression on Elsa; she laments that her name sounds so sweet on her husband's lips but she cannot utter his name. She asks him to tell her his name when no one else is around, but at all instances he refuses.

Finally, despite his warnings, she asks the Knight the fatal questions. Before the Knight can answer, Telramund and his four recruits rush into the room in order to attack him. The Knight defeats and kills Telramund. Then, he sorrowfully turns to Elsa and asks her to follow him to the King, to whom he will now reveal his secrets. The troops arrive equipped for war. Telramund's corpse is brought in. Elsa comes forward, then the Knight. The theatre gave the square its new name — even today it is known as Theatre Square.

Built according to plans by Antonio Rinaldi, the Bolshoi Theatre staggered the public with the sheer scale of its dimensions, its majestic architecture and its stage, equipped with the most up-to-date theatre equipment and machinery. The Russian Opera Company performed here in turn with the Italian and French Companies, and there were also plays and concerts of vocal and instrumental music. St Petersburg was expanding and its image changed constantly.

In Thomas de Thomon — a brilliant architect and draughtsman — undertook the capital reconstruction of the interior layout and decor of the theatre, noticeably altering its external appearance and proportions. The new, grand and majestic Bolshoi Theatre became one of the architectural attractions of the capital city on the River Neva along with the Admiralty, the Stock Exchange and Kazan Cathedral. But on the night of 1 January there was a tremendous fire at the Bolshoi Theatre. Thomas de Thomon, who worked on the reconstruction plans of his darling project, did not live to see it come to fruition. The legendary Charles Didelot is linked with the birth of the international glory of Russian ballet. It was during these years that Pushkin, who immortalised the theatre in his ageless poetry, was a regular visitor to the Bolshoi Theatre in St Petersburg.

In , to improve the acoustics the architect Alberto Cavos — son of the composer and conductor — replaced the cupola ceiling of the auditorium with a flat one, above which he housed an artistic workshop and a hall for decorating the sets. Alberto Cavos removed the columns from the auditorium as they interfered with the view and distorted the acoustics; he also gave the auditorium its traditional horse-shoe shape and increased its length and height to seat up to two thousand people.

In time, performances by the Russian Opera Company were transferred to the Alexandrinsky Theatre and the so-called Circus Theatre, which was located opposite the Bolshoi where the Ballet Company and the Italian Opera Company continued to perform.

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