⌚ Violence Against Women Literature Review

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Violence Against Women Literature Review

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Jackson Katz: Violence against women—it's a men's issue

The International Journal of Kurdish Studies. BuzzFeed Community. Retrieved 25 November Tauris, pp. The Guardian. The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 December The Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 May The Independent. New York Times. NET in German. ISSN In anderen Provinzen der Gegend sah es kaum besser aus. BBC News. The New York Times. Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 15 July University of Toronto. Retrieved 29 November BrisbaneTimes 13 January Retrieved on 1 October Retrieved 23 December Hofstra Law Review.

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BMC Public Health. PMC PMID Between 41 and 73 percent of women have undergone FGM. Stop FGM in Kurdistan. Retrieved 30 November Washington Post Foreign Service. Kurdistan is the only known part of Iraq --and one of the few places in the world--where female genital mutilation is widespread. More than 60 percent of women in northern Iraq have been mutilated, according to a study conducted this year.

In at least one Kurdish territory, 95 percent of women have undergone the practice, which human rights groups call female genital mutilation. Bhalotra et al. According to Schneider et al. According to Bradbury-Jones and Isham 52 , it could also be because of the distorted power dynamics at home resulting in abuse and gender violence that escapes the scrutiny of anyone from outside. The problem of gender-based violence during the pandemic further worsens because the police are unable to tackle the issue of gender-based violence. According to a report, gender-based violence in Liberia could have also increased because the police were overwhelmed and unable to defend the victims Richards 54 reported that economic strain, substance abuse, and isolation all tend to increase the risk of domestic violence.

Based on the above literature review, it is evident that understanding of gender violence is a key priority in order to achieve gender equality globally. Past researches have established a strong link between different forms of gender-based violence and psychological issues. Thus, it is all the more important to tackle the issue of rising gender-based violence in the face of COVID It has been reported that women who experience one form of gender-based violence are more likely to experience other forms of gender violence According to Campbell 56 , intimate partner violence is associated with PTSD, depression, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. Woods 57 reported that PTSD symptoms could be observed in both abused and post-abused women.

Jackson et al. They reported that the frequency of being hit in the head was significantly correlated with severe cognitive symptoms. Walker 59 reported that victims of domestic violence experience a sequelae of psychological symptoms that include anxiety, depression, avoidance, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and hyper-arousal. COVID seems to be similar to the pandemics in the past since this too has resulted in an increase in cases of domestic violence. Several media reports indicate a surge in cases of domestic violence in various countries. Some charities in Australia also raised concerns about COVID misinformation being used by the offenders to further control and abuse the victims of domestic violence Allen-Ebrahimian 62 reported that China witnessed a three-fold increase in the cases of domestic violence after imposing quarantine.

Even the UK has been facing concerns due to rising family violence. There has also been an apparent increase in the number of domestic homicides An article in The Indian Express draws attention to the fact that a vast majority of people in Mumbai do not have household water connections. With rising summer temperatures, people spending more time at homes during lockdowns, and emphasis on handwashing, there comes the need for household water. Consequently, many women are turning to underground water market operating under the cloak of darkness. Moreover, women have been spending more time queuing up for water and often approach the market in the wee hours of mornings where they often face verbal and sexual harassment This could be because of the fear of getting discovered by their offenders at home according to Jaya Velankar, Director Jagori It has become easier for the abusers to enforce control tactics by limiting the access of the victims to phones, internet, and other people.

In an article published by BU today 69 , Rothman who is a professor of Community Health Sciences raised concerns about declaring sale of guns to be essential services in some states of the United States. This increases the likelihood of fatal interpersonal violence. Fielding 70 pointed out that the victims of abuse may even be scared to visit a hospital for treatment of their injuries due to the fear of contracting the COVID disease.

The first step to tackle the issue of rising gender violence in the times of pandemic is the acknowledgment of the issue, which has been ignored during the pandemics in the past Campbell 28 emphasizes that expanding community partnerships and spreading awareness about the importance of reporting incidents of abuse are crucial to reducing the number of such cases. According to Bradbury and Isham 52 , one way to deal with the issue of domestic violence is by constantly asking if people feel safe at home.

However, it is very crucial that the people asking these questions have the time and emotional resources. It is often possible that the victims may communicate in subtle and indirect ways, which can be easily missed. They also emphasize the importance of online and telephonic services for those seeking therapeutic interventions, counseling, or any other kind of support. Gerster 72 emphasizes that neighbors of families with violence can also help to reduce domestic violence by initiating conversation with them.

Researchers also emphasize the need to train healthcare workers to recognize the signs of violence to tackle the issue of gender-based violence 73 , Van Gelder et al. These may include offering supportive statements, promoting safety guidelines via advertisements, bystander approaches, and accessing help on behalf of the victim after obtaining consent. They also call for increase in service availability and funding for protection needs and shelters during quarantine. Hatchimonji et al. There is also a strong need to strengthen the helpline services which victims of gender violence can utilize without alerting their offenders. Antonio Guteres, the United Nations Secretary General, also emphasized the need for the countries to prioritize support by setting up emergency warning systems for individuals facing family violence Mazza et al.

Some countries have in fact tried to adapt to the situation of quarantine resulting from COVID by implementing several practices to reduce gender-based violence. For instance, France has set up warning systems at groceries and pharmacies to enable victims of gender and family violence to alert the authorities They may also alert the staff about the required help by using code words that have been introduced. Domestic Violence Resource Center Australia has also issued specific guidance for family and friends to support those in family violence situations National Domestic Violence Hotline, USA, has also been offering service via online texting chat so that victims of domestic violence can seek help In Beijing, a judicial court has been using cloud-based platforms and online court hearings to deal with cases of gender-based violence in the times of pandemic Nair and Banerjee 82 emphasized the need for the combined efforts of health professionals with print and digital media to avoid misinformation and educate people about abuse prevention.

NGOs have requested to publicize the phone numbers of the protection officers by sticking them outside their offices to make them more accessible to the victims. The AALI staff member also expressed concern over a lack of sense of urgency when dealing with domestic violence cases under lockdown. The effectiveness of the helplines is reduced if it is not followed by necessary action and is merely recorded as data. Aman: global Voices for Peace in the Home, which is a network of over organizations and individuals working on the issue of violence against women across 18 states in India, has written a letter to the National Commission of Women, India with collective recommendations to respond to the situation of women facing violence under lockdown.

The recommendations include making the helpline numbers such as and 1, functional; publicizing the support services and resources available; utilizing Nirbhaya funds Nirbhaya Fund is a corpus fund of Indian rupee 10 billion created by the Government of India to support the activities and initiatives of the government and NGOs working towards protecting the dignity and ensuring safety of women in India. The Aman network has also recommended to build a temporary shelter in the Kashmir Valley, as there are no shelter homes built under the Protection of Women under the Domestic Violence Act, The outcome of gender-based violence is long lasting for its victims, and rampant for the responses that are often inadequate. Hence, it is crucial to maintain a sense of urgency in cases of gender-based violence even during crisis situations.

Based on the above literature review, it can be maintained that there is a need for a holistic response model to deal with the issue of gender-based violence during current and possible future pandemics. Health professionals, media, and community efforts must be combined to effectively deal with the issue of gender-based violence. Moreover, continuous and rigorous efforts are required to put an end to the stigma associated with gender-based violence.

The spread of the novel Coronavirus has created a myriad of problems for the people to grapple with. In the absence of a vaccine and effective treatment for this virus, the governments are forced to impose quarantines to reduce the spread of the disease. However, this has resulted in a paradox of social distancing, which includes issues such as economic instability, mental health problems, and isolation. Although there have been researches exploring the impact of COVID, there is a lack of rigorous literature highlighting these issues from the perspective of gender. This also involves the issue of rising gender violence during the pandemic.

COVID has not only led to an increase in the cases of gender-based violence but has disconnected them from their support networks. To reduce the prevalence of the issue, it is crucial to acknowledge the extent of gender-based violence, reimagine government policies, and support networks to make it easier for the victims to access them and, lastly, create awareness about the issue as well as the resources available to tackle it. SM and TS contributed to the conception, structure of the paper, contributed to analysis, and interpretation of available literature. SM contributed to the development initial draft.

TS reviewed and critiqued the output for important intellectual content. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Nie W. The origin of quaratine. Schepin OP. International Quarantine. Translated by Meerovich and Bobrov. Sabbatani S, and Fiorino S. The Antonine plague and the decline of the Roman empire. Infez Med. PubMed Abstract. Rosen W. Google Scholar. The psychology impact of quarantine and how to reduce it. Emerg Infect Dis. Understanding compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience.

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March 11, Armenia articles. Armenian genocide Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Armenian national liberation movement more Outline Index. Women in Asia. Category Asia portal. Women in Europe. Categories : Women in Armenia Women by country. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. An Armenian woman from New Julfa in national costume. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Women of Armenia.

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