⚡ The Glass Castle Stylistic Analysis

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The Glass Castle Stylistic Analysis

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One such 1 example concerns the role of women in architecture. In her research, Lynne 2 Walker argued that in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries some women were engaged in public building projects and businesses allied to building 4 trades, but it was mainly educated upper-class women with the money 5 and time who practised architecture as amateurs within the family estate. Work in the commercial world 8 for women was frowned upon in the nineteenth century, but it was accept- 9 able for middle-class women to engage in philanthropic projects such as housing for the poor.

The commemorative chapel for the painter G. Watts 1 at Compton, Surrey, —, designed by Mary Watts, his wife, was 2 unusual. Historical 1 research, in other words, can explain what has happened in the past but can- 2 not offer a simple guide to future action. It is important that we are aware 3 and critical of the ways in which our own attitudes have been constructed. The diameter of the Circus at Bath is feet, 9 the same as that of Stonehenge and this was, so Wood argued, equal to 60 Jewish cubits, that is to say the dimensions of the second temple at Jerusalem 1 Figure 3. He was convinced that Bath 3 had been the principal Druid centre of Britain.

By examining and questioning 2 the historical evidence Mowl arrived at a new interpretation of one of the 3 most important architectural features of Bath. The subject is in a sense as old as architecture itself, but in 5 another sense it is a comparatively new one. Because 7 the separation of architectural history as a discipline distinct from that of 8 architecture is comparatively recent, architectural histories have in the past 9 tended to be written mainly by architects. From the period of ancient Greece and Rome until the sixteenth century, architectural critics wrote about 1 contemporary architecture.

In the sixteenth century this changed. Vasari, 2 writing about the architecture of his day, placed it in the context of past 3 architecture as a means of justifying the superiority of contemporary work. In their historical writings architects took a polemical stance, using 8 the past to justify and validate the present. As we have seen, the surviving remains of ancient Roman 2 buildings in Italy provided a positive inspiration to the architects of the early 3 renaissance there. By contrast, to A. In these exam- 8 ples the new contemporary architecture was seen as an improvement on what 9 had immediately preceded it.

Instead of simply seeing contemporary architecture as 2 an improvement on the past, some architects and intellectuals began to appre- 3 ciate past periods and styles of architecture and differentiate between discrete 4 phases with distinct merits. As in the earlier centuries they also used past princi- ples as the basis for new architecture. It included Egyptian, Chinese and Islamic buildings and was an early comparative history of world architecture.

In J. Unlike Vasari, this provided an account of past architecture that did not interpret it as a prelude to the superior architecture of the present day. The eighteenth-century enlightenment encouraged the development of architectural history. During this period many intellectuals questioned the basis of society and everything that had been taken for granted: religion, the monarchy, aesthetics and history.

It was this questioning which paved the way for the French revolution and the industrial revolution. The enlighten- ment examined the past in order to discover why the world was as it was and the alternatives. Excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum began to reveal something of the past, as did visits to ancient classical sites and to Egypt. The newly developing subject of architectural history tended to be encyclopaedic in scope and to concentrate on form, styles and heroic building types.

The close ties between American and German scholarship in the area of archi- tectural history persisted during the major part of both centuries. Subsequently called A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method, the eighteenth edition published in became simply A History of Architecture. The orig- 2 inal method adopted by the father-and-son team was to apply the techniques 3 of comparative anatomy and comparative biology to architecture. History of 4 Architecture: Centenary Edition is the title of the twentieth and most recent 5 edition. For example, it can be revealing to compare a mosque 1 in the UK or the United States today with one built in the Indian sub- 2 continent or in the Middle East, or an ancient Roman arena with a modern football stadium, since each pair is concerned with similar functions.

There 4 would, however, be little point in comparing buildings that had nothing in 5 common, such as a Roman arena with a Victorian church. The technique 6 has also been used for didactic purposes. In the edition of this book Pugin juxtaposed illustrations contrasting the negative qualities of contemporary cities and their architecture with the positive qualities of the medieval equivalent Figure 3.

The walled medieval town with church spires punctuating the skyline is surrounded by open country- side. In the nineteenth-century town, factories and factory chimneys vie with the spires. Architectural history developed in Europe, and although Fischer von Erlach included non-European architecture in his early history of the subject, the main focus of study has been European monumental or polite archi- tecture.

Often if the architecture of continents other than Europe or North America was discussed, it tended to be from a Eurocentric and colonial point of view. This is evident in the judgements made by James Fergusson, a successful Scottish businessman, amateur historian and traveller, who wrote the History of Indian and Eastern Architecture in His subject was enor- mous, covering many religions, cultures and periods. He focused on technical and aesthetic questions and praised the variety and originality of buildings in such diverse areas as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, Java, China and Japan.

Nevertheless he selected and saw buildings through Western eyes and constantly made a negative comparison with European traditions. Of the Indian civilisation he stated that it: may contain nothing so sublime as the Hall at Karnac, nothing so intel- lectual as the Parthenon, nor so constructively grand as a medieval cathedral; but for certain other qualities — not perhaps of the highest kind, yet very important in architectural art — the Indian buildings stand alone. This is now often called Indo-Islamic architecture. The 3 name Islamic is also a Western construct and it raises further questions. References to Islamic architecture, however, often apply to all build- 7 ing types in Islamic countries, in lands that Islam conquered, or where there 8 are large Muslim communities, such as tropical Africa or Indonesia.

It is also 9 applied to the architecture of the Islamic diaspora in western Europe and America. To those sharing this overwhelming European focus it was 2 impossible to believe that a major African building such as the thirteenth- 3 century Great Zimbabwe ruins could have been built by the local people; 4 it was argued that early Arab or European traders and explorers must have 5 built it Figure 3.

Vernacular architecture belonging to any region con- 6 tinues to be ignored in Banister Fletcher presumably because it is regarded 7 as low status and the buildings are often impermanent. We need to identify 8 the prejudices of the historian and be wary of Eurocentric value judgements 9 that still overshadow discussions of vernacular buildings, or those of colonised people and their successors. This has led to many separate societies and journals. Some take an aspect of the subject and study it in more detail; others develop new theories and approaches. The UK Construction History Society focuses on the history of structural design and the history of building practice. We now have a pretty fair command of these subjects. There is a tendency now to look more deeply into the social, economic and industrial hinterland.

The quest for understanding why the architecture of any place or period developed as it did has led to many theories. But they have been challenged. The theories gener- ally fall into four main groups: rational, technological and constructional; material, economic and social; religious, cultural and philosophical; and the spirit of the age. Theories of architectural change are linked to approaches to the discipline of architectural history and to value judgements in archi- tecture.

They can say as much about the historian, as identifying reasons for the emergence of particular built forms. Technical and materialist theories The technical and rational theory of architecture tends to seek answers either in terms of new technological or constructional developments, or as the result of applying logic to technological or practical problems. If we look at the medieval cathedral according to this theory, then the reason why gothic cathedrals evolved their complex forms was in response to the practical prob- lems posed by building high buildings, spanning wide spaces and incorporating increasingly large glass windows.

Clearly many medieval buildings reveal great engineering prowess but medievalists today would question this view. There is also uncertainty as to how far medieval builders understood the behaviour of materials. As for the concern for height, 4 this seems to have been an option but not a necessary requirement and again raises questions about the primacy of new constructional techniques. Known as rationalists they also argued that merit in the architecture of their own day should come from giving priority to the logic of the essential structure or supporting elements of a building.

It therefore seeks to set architecture in this context. Buildings are related to the social and economic system that has encouraged certain social relationships, methods of exchange and manufac- ture. These give rise to particular patterns of patronage and consumption, techniques of construction, building types and planning. This focus on the material conditions, however, denies the role of the patron and architect and fails to account for the diversity of expression at any one time.

Religious and cultural theories The theory that architecture expresses the religious, cultural and philosoph- ical ideas of the period implies that if we know enough, it should be possible to forecast what the architecture will be. It also implies a simple and direct relationship between architecture and these ideas, rather than acknowledging that all societies and their cultural manifestations are complex organisms.

For A. The pyramid and obelisk of Egyptian Architecture, its Lotus capitals, its gigantic sphinxes and multiplied hieroglyphics, were not mere fanciful Architectural combinations and ornaments, but emblems of the philosophy and mythology of that nation. He argued in True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture that gothic was not a style, but a set of building principles that were as relevant to the s as to the medieval period.

For example, the religious principle of truth was expressed through the principle of architectural truth. Constructional truth meant that the construction of a building was evident and not concealed; ornament was used, but it did not obscure the construction and it was appropriate in form and meaning. Truth to materials meant that all materials were chosen for their particular quali- ties and not painted to look like other materials.

They have examined individual cultures synchroni- 4 cally, or at one point in time, as a single system of meanings like a language. For the Navajo the forms were a 9 divine gift to the people from their deity, Talking God; they had cosmo- logical meanings and required the enactment of rituals. The hogan was roughly circular to symbolise the 3 cosmos. Each of four structural poles represented a cardinal point and was 4 associated with an individual female deity.

The entry always faced the rising 5 sun in the east. Invisible boundaries within led to strict gender divisions: 6 men and their possessions to the left or south, women to the right or north. Architectural historians might also wish to 3 investigate the tension between the forms as carriers of symbolic meaning 4 and as a product of physical and technical constraints. They would also want to undertake research into the historical sources of the design. This theory came from the German philosopher Hegel and provided a concep- tual framework for understanding the historical development of art and architecture for the major part of the twentieth century.

Central to the concept of the Zeitgeist is the idea of history as a progressive process. Because these styles were evident in architecture, painting, furni- ture, ceramics, dress and literature they were manifestations of the Zeitgeist and the similarities in the work of architects, painters, designers and writers were the result of living in the same period. The danger of this explanation is that it encourages the search for consistency in order to build a coherent picture.

In an attempt to establish modernism as the only true style, early twentieth-century historians such as Nikolaus Pevsner and Siegfried Giedion employed the concept of the Zeitgeist. These included the mass market, new power sources, materials such as glass, steel and reinforced concrete, new forms of transport and increasing urbanisation. They saw modernism as a coherent style based on these features and thus it accorded with the spirit of the age. Many avant-garde architects and designers explored novel forms appro- priate to the new materials and technology and particularly welcomed urban projects for mass housing, health centres and industrial buildings.

Between the two World Wars modernism was practised by only a small group of architects and designers, located mainly in western Europe. However modernist historians did 3 not see those styles as genuine products of the age but, rather, as the result 4 of crass commercialism, wayward individualism or as the archaic remnants 5 of styles belonging to previous periods. The theory presupposed a value 6 judgement. From the title we might expect a broad survey of building in the twentieth century, 1 but this is not the case. The works that Sharp selected were those that he 2 was able to group together as modernist. Like his predecessors, Pevsner and Giedion, Sharp found in modernism what he believed was the true and ultim- 4 ately hegemonic style of the period. The subject is res- 2 ponding to the linguistic theories of Derrida and others, just as much as it 3 is to the social psychoanalysis of post-Freudian critics.

Derrida challenged 9 the existence of any necessary connection between surface structures and deep structures. He believed linguistic structures were a way of establishing 1 hierarchical relationships between good and evil, text and speech, author 2 and reader, men and women. A deconstructive reading meant noting the 3 hierarchy and challenging it, but at the same time resisting the introduction 4 of a new hierarchy. Tschumi had been exploring the links between 8 deconstruction and architecture and he contacted Derrida who agreed to 9 become involved. Tschumi used three superimposed 2 grids to structure the open areas. Structures came before spaces, and the folies 3 came before uses.

Thus the meaning of the park depended on the visitor and their reasons for being there and did not depend on the design. Tschumi boasted that at la Villette he had created the largest discontinuous building in the world. One of the most wide- spread approaches focuses on periods and style and in Chapter 8 we examine, clarify and deconstruct some of its concepts. Architectural historians need both a broad and a close focus on buildings, both singly and in groups. They need to place them in their total geographical, cultural, technological, social and economic context.

They also need to characterise the function, form, the materials and construction, and examine how buildings came to be built, as well as the critical responses at the time they were constructed. Architectural history 49 Buildings and architectural histories 2 3 Buildings themselves provide evidence of their history, but disentangling 4 that evidence may prove very complex.

Most buildings more than a few 5 decades old have been altered, and the longer a building has been in exist- 6 ence, the more likely it is to have been altered a number of times. If drawings 7 have been made, they may provide clues to some of the alterations, but if 8 there are no drawings the evidence is restricted to the fabric of the building 9 itself, including its foundations and drains. Some large building projects such as the great medieval castles and cathedrals were built over many 1 years or centuries.

As the methods for importing and exporting goods changed, so old docks and warehouses became redundant. During our lives our family size 3 changes, and if it is not convenient to move house, we may alter our houses, 4 adding extensions and making rooms in the attic. There may be variations in the orna- 6 ment, changes in the brickwork, windows blocked off or of a different size, 7 and changes in the roof pitch and form. The timber roof of a nave or aisle 8 may have been burnt down and replaced. Where the wall used to be we may see a large beam or RSJ rolled 7 steel joist spanning the opening and resting on the end walls.

With the advent of 9 central heating, chimneys and chimneybreasts became redundant and in order to give more internal space, they may have been removed. Some have been subdivided to cater for smaller 3 congregations and others have been converted to new uses. The awesome space of the nave, the aisles used for processions, the stained-glass windows and the chancel with its sacred altar will all have been destroyed. The tower might provide an eccentric, if some- what poky, living space, but the bells will no longer broadcast the presence of the church to the neighbourhood.

Scott 2 3 4 buildings, but it might take a great leap of the imagination to appreciate 5 the character of the original spaces and forms that no longer exist. Examining 6 buildings for evidence of alteration and change of use provides the starting 7 point from which to explore the reasons for these changes. Reconstructions provide an inter- 2 esting problem, for although drawings of the original may be in existence 3 so that the reconstruction is accurate in form and measurement, there may 4 nevertheless be differences between the two. No detailed drawings of the 8 original existed and the reconstruction was worked out from photographs 9 and examination of the existing site.

Buildings that were designed but never built at the time have, on occa- sion, been constructed later. Earlier in Mackintosh had won the competition for the design of the Glasgow School of Art, and the city still has many of his buildings. The original was intended as a private house, but the building of was intended to be open to the public and to house conferences and part of the Mackintosh archive. The architects, Andy Macmillan and John Cane, sought exemplars in surviving works by Mackintosh and Macdonald and contemporary artists and craftspeople were brought in to interpret the interior decorations.

At the beginning of the twentieth century 8 W. He argued that a 7 limited range of select masterpieces of the past should be studied in order 8 to understand how they achieved their beauty. He analysed the principles of 9 composition of these masterpieces, in terms of the disposition of planes, masses, form, proportion and treatment of materials. He thought that from 1 such analyses students could learn to make pleasing forms themselves rather 2 than by studying how buildings were constructed or why they were built.

There, history was seen 6 as an obstacle inhibiting the development of creativity, so it initially had 7 no place in the curriculum. Principles of design were to evolve from the 8 practical activity of designing and making. However, after three years, 9 architectural history was introduced at the Bauhaus, as a means of verifying the principles that the students discovered. From them students could verify what they had 3 discovered about their own period. Thus, designing for modern needs and 4 using modern materials would lead to the development of new appropriate 5 forms. Some see the architecture of the past as a continuum and argue that studies should concentrate on recurring ideas and themes, for similarities of approach can be found between the past and current archi- tectural practice.

Others argue the opposite: history should be interpreted as a process of continual change and it is important to emphasise the ways in which the past differs from the present. Seeing architectural history as part of a wider social process implies a rigorous historical approach that does not focus primarily on architects and their ideas. Other European architectural schools emphasise sociology and urbanism in their architectural history. Their work evolves from a synthesis of a wide range of information expressed in their designs as layers of meaning. Architectural history may contribute to this, but may not necessarily do so. As we have seen there is no one response to the knowledge and issues raised by history.

Today, whether or not we live in large cities with their wealth of architectural history, a wide range of architecture is accessible on the web and those in the remotest rural areas may still acquire a sense of the variety of possible architectural experiences. Different activities such as work, recreation, bringing up a family and worship require different kinds of buildings, perhaps in special locations, 1 with varying spaces, environments and forms. The functions of buildings are 2 often complex, and not all are utilitarian, in the sense of serving a practical 3 purpose.

Stonehenge had a changing but carefully 7 considered relationship to the rising and setting of the sun and moon, 8 and it may have provided a focus for religious ceremonies and rituals. Some 9 religious buildings embody something of the spirit of the religion. The awe- inspiring temples of ancient Egypt were designed to enhance the importance 1 of the gods and the priesthood. The space inside medieval cathedrals was 2 often large and of great height. This enhances the acoustics and the spatial 3 requirements of the clergy and congregation, but it also has another more 4 subtle function. The scale of the space creates a sense of awe in those visiting 5 the building. Appropriately 8 these shafts direct the eye heavenwards.

In practical terms their round form and encircling pathway en- 1 courage worshippers to circulate around the building, which, according 2 to tradition, contains the cremated relics of the Buddha or his disciples 3 Figure 4. In the late eighteenth century in France, some architects became particularly interested in the expressive aspect of architecture. Often the forms of buildings are a mix of prac- tical, expressive and symbolic functions, and we discuss these in more depth as we explore the space, interiors and forms of buildings. We tend to think of this space as being inside, but it may also be outside and include a courtyard or a walled garden.

These 5 enable the air to circulate under the building, provide a sheltered place for 6 children to play in bad weather, and offer views through and past the 7 building. Shelter in the form of a huge 9 umbrella is how we might describe a railway station train shed. Barlow and R. From the outside we can see what goes on inside and vice versa. When dark glass is used the effect is rather different. By contrast, at night when the lights are on inside, the walls dissolve completely and the interior is revealed. The German Pavilion was designed by Mies van der Rohe for the international exhibition in Barcelona in to be part of space rather than enclose it see Figure 3.

Instead, there are gaps that allow people to move around the freestanding walls. In traditional Japanese domestic architecture the spaces are subdivided not by thick walls but translucent paper screens and movable partitions, some not even reaching the ceiling, so there is little sense of enclosure. Space and function 59 Space and function 2 3 Buildings often consist of several juxtaposed spaces catering for different 4 related activities. There may also be a 9 balcony for sitting, chatting and looking. There are separate rooms for cloak- rooms and toilets and an entrance hall to meet friends and buy tickets.

All of these may change over time. Whole families and their guests might sleep in 2 the chamber, which could also be used for storage. Some halls had two storeys 3 at one end, with a bedroom upstairs and parlour below. The hall of the lord 4 of the manor operated as a manorial court and centre for organising farming 5 activities, as well as a residence. A wall 9 known as the Flodden Wall encircled Edinburgh, Scotland, in the sixteenth century. As the population grew, the density of the town increased, and it 1 became common to build upwards. Stone tenements of up to ten storeys were 2 constructed, with one or more families living on each storey. The families 3 in each building or tenement shared a communal staircase and, later, lava- 4 tories.

The poor might have only one room, the slightly better off two rooms, 5 and the wealthy had many rooms. Each house was well 9 built with a yard containing a privy, and gas and water laid on. This was a distinct improvement on urban slum accommodation, where often whole families with many children lived in one or two rooms Figure 4. In theatres, concert halls and even motorway service stations there are often long queues of women waiting to use the toilets and washroom.

More adequate facilities are now being designed, for research has shown that women, in comparison with men, need to use them more often and they need twice the time. In the UK in the s there was a great expansion of middle-class house building. These houses were designed by men as single-family units for a nuclear family of two parents and several children. In reality, families are of varying size and type. Today an increasing number of people live alone: divorced and separated families require a home each, elderly relatives may live in a residential home or join the nuclear family, and the ethnic diver- sity of our cities brings many extended families. The kitchen isolated the 2 person working there from the rest of the family. As early as , Robert Owen in Scotland 5 published plans for alternative communities that catered for the needs of 6 working mothers.

Kitchens and dining rooms were part of the communal 7 facilities shared by the whole community, rather than rooms in each indi- 8 vidual home. He also proposed community nurseries so that childcare 9 took place largely out of the home. Howland argued 2 for professional childcare and domestic services, and with J. Deery and A. Owen made unrealised plans for apartment hotels, patio houses and 4 cottages with communal kitchens, dining rooms and laundries for the experi- 5 mental community of Topolobampo in Mexico in In the hot sunny climate of 9 southern Africa rural families use the outdoor living space as well as separate buildings for sleeping, cooking or storage Figure 4.

The extended family 1 unit may include grandparents and the families of several brothers. In the 2 traditional home of a Shona family in Zimbabwe work and domestic activ- 3 ities such as craftwork, preparing crops and food, washing up, socialising 4 and play take place in the central, well-swept courtyard with perhaps a tree 5 for shade. Shelter and warmth at night, propriety, security and practicality 6 mean that sleeping space and the areas for cooking, food storage and hygiene 7 are inside buildings. Each is housed in its own circular or rectangular build- 8 ing with thatch roof. There are gender-segregated communal buildings where 9 children sleep, individual buildings for each married couple to sleep, and granaries.

Instead of one kitchen, there might be several, one for each married 1 woman. Invisible lines subdivide the interior space of the kitchen into male 2 and female areas and there is a platform for religious rituals. On the periphery 3 of the homestead there are washrooms and latrines and there may be small 4 enclosures for chickens or a goat. Visitors to the homestead have no door to 5 knock on but will recognise they are entering a home either because there 6 is a fence or because the space around is well swept, and they can announce 7 their presence by calling.

These were designed for protection against dust storms, to 1 provide shade and to channel cool breezes. Traditionally, houses in Bahrain 2 in the Gulf were gender-segregated and designed for privacy. There were two entrances: one for guests and one for the family. A space may be physically large or small but we can only judge this by making comparisons, for its scale depends on the number of people using it, the furnishings and objects in it, the neigh- bouring spaces and our expectations.

Small rooms in a terraced house may suggest snug comfort, but if a whole family had to live in one small room, as many people did in the nineteenth century, then the space is overcrowded and uncomfortable. Spaces for large numbers of people, such as a cathedral, sports hall, parliament or factory, need to be large. They are large scale if the height of the internal space is for more than the practical reasons of acoustics, the provision of air and the need to reduce the sense of enclosure. The earlier example of a medieval cathedral illustrated how scale can evoke a feeling of awe and grandeur. The juxtaposition of different-sized spaces may be deliberately exagger- ated to give a sense of drama or to impress the visitor. At the Ennis House in Los Angeles, California, , Frank Lloyd Wright deliberately designed a small, dark entrance hall with a low ceiling, as a dramatic contrast from the glare of the sun outside and the spacious proportions of the rooms beyond.

The priority given to some spaces over others within a building is referred to as spatial hierarchy. Some parts such as the principal living and entertaining rooms 2 were beautiful and should be exposed; others such as kitchens and cellars 3 were not suitable for view and should be hidden. This was a double-height room that 7 opened out onto a terrace and offered an elegant, light and airy contrast to 8 the kitchens, bathrooms and bedrooms. It 4 certainly could not form the focal point for the household and visitors. Today, 5 many kitchens are multifunctional and are used for laundry, cooking, dining 6 and a centre for the family. They may also be status symbols in terms of 7 design and the latest technology. Those with a proscenium arch cater for a linear 9 relationship between the audience and a rectangular stage.

By contrast, theatres in the round are, as their name implies, designed so that the audience 1 surrounds the stage. Generally the stage and the auditorium are the largest 2 spaces within the hierarchy of space in a theatre. This is where the main 3 action takes place both in reality and metaphorically. The high auditorium 4 is designed to be airy, give good acoustics and to provide audiences with 5 adequate sight lines. Above the raked seating in the auditorium there 6 may be a number of galleries or tiers of balconies.

The stage area may appear to be a small box 9 shape to the audience, but it includes a tall rectangular space above the stage, housing the hoist mechanisms for the stage scenery. The types of 1 performance and the facilities for the audience and the artistes determine 2 both the relative size of the stage and auditorium and the range and size of 3 other spaces. The rear of the building right houses a complex of tiny cells 8 used for dressing rooms, administrative activities and storage. The stage and 9 auditorium combined are allocated a far larger space. The stage is a tall rectangular box shape.

The auditorium, which is lower, is roofed over with 1 a dome; its shallow rounded form inside pleasingly echoes the circular tiers 2 of balconies beneath and symbolically unites the audience in a shared ambi- 3 ence. Poor visibility of the stage, however, is offered to those not fortunate 4 enough to be in the front row of the boxes and balconies. This leads into an elegant, small-domed circular hall that gives access to the royal box see Figure 5. Spatial priority in this building is allocated to the front left housing the main entrance.

This includes a large vestibule leading to a two-branched grand staircase over- looked by galleries within a large domed foyer adjacent to the auditorium. These are important social and ritual spaces designed for the audience to promenade elegantly and to see and be seen during intervals and when entering or leaving the building. Rules of proportion evolved but could be broken as architects tackled the complex tasks of building. Later, the width of the 4 spaces between columns became important in determining dimensions. The later building is a little longer and much wider, 8 but the dimensions of the elements were not increased because it was prac- 9 tical to reuse much of the older material.

To 2 make the building appear up to date the entrance portico had new, more slender columns. He described how the human body with 5 hands and feet outstretched could be inscribed in both a circle and a square 6 if you took the navel as the centre. This module 8 in turn determined the diameter of the base of a column, and multiples of 9 it gave its height and the other dimensions of a temple. The height of a Doric column should be six times the diameter of the base of the shaft.

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Choosing Your AP Courses. AP Students. Already enrolled? Join your class in My AP. Not a Student? Go to My AP. About the Course About the Exam. About the Course Learn about the elements of argument and composition as you develop your critical-reading and writing skills. Skills You'll Learn Reading closely, analyzing, and interpreting a piece of writing Evaluating a source of information Gathering and consolidating information from different sources Writing an evidence-based argument Drafting and revising a piece of writing. College Course Equivalent An introductory college-level literary analysis course. Recommended Prerequisites None. About the Units The course content outlined below is organized into commonly taught units of study that provide one possible sequence for the course.

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