✪✪✪ Psychosocial Theory

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Psychosocial Theory



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Erikson's psychosocial development - Individuals and Society - MCAT - Khan Academy

Share Flipboard Email. By Cynthia Vinney. Updated April 22, Key Takeaways: Psychodynamic Theory Psychodynamic theory is comprised of a set of psychological theories that arise from the ideas that humans are often driven by unconscious motivations and that adult personality and relationships are often the result of childhood experiences. Psychodynamic theory originated in the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, and includes any theory based on his ideas, including work by Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Erik Erikson. It also includes newer theories like object relations.

Cite this Article Format. Vinney, Cynthia. Psychodynamic Theory: Approaches and Proponents. Freud: Id, Ego, and Superego Explained. Dream Interpretation According to Psychology. Most Influential Scientists of the 20th Century. Understanding Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder. Anna Freud, Founder of Child Psychoanalysis. Wilhelm Reich and the Orgone Accumulator. This stage of the Erikson stages of development happens during adolescence years old. It marks the shift from childhood to adulthood. At this point, young people experience a lot of changes in their body. They begin to contemplate on the role they want to play in the adult world.

They also try to develop their occupational and sexual identities by exploring different possibilities. Young people who succeed at this stage develop a strong sense of identity. When they come across challenges and problems, they can commit to their principles, ideals and beliefs. Those who fail to establish their own identity at this stage tend to be confused about themselves and about their future. This is characterized by the self-esteem and self-confidence that are requisite to associating freely with people and beliefs on the basis of their value, loyalty, and integrity. It is at this developmental milestone that young adults think about settling down and starting families, and they are more willing to sacrifice and compromise for the sake of their relationships.

However, as they form relationships with others, they also get to experience rejections, such as being rejected by someone they like and breaking up with their partners. This happens when young adults isolate themselves to avoid and even destroy the people and negative forces that appear to be harmful to them. Young adults develop the capacity to offer love, both physically and emotionally, and to accept love in return.

They also become more adept at forming sincere reciprocal relationships and bond with others for mutual fulfilment. They feel the urge to be productive and make contributions to the society. For example, they may volunteer at their church or mentor young kids. They want to leave a legacy and make this world a better place for future generations. Major milestones may happen at this stage, such as children leaving home, change of career path, etc.

Some people may experience mid-life crisis and struggle with finding new purposes in their lives. Failure to resolve the crisis at this stage may lead people to experience stagnation. They become uninterested in their environment and the people around them. They are able to offer unconditional support for their children, their community and the society. They are typically retirees. It is important for them to feel a sense of fulfilment knowing that they have done something significant and made meaningful contributions to the society during their younger years. When they look back at their lives, they experience a sense of integrity when they feel proud of their achievements.

The adolescent mind is essentially a mind or moratorium, a psychosocial stage between childhood and adulthood, and between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be developed by the adult Erikson, , p. This is a major stage of development where the child has to learn the roles he will occupy as an adult. It is during this stage that the adolescent will re-examine his identity and try to find out exactly who he or she is. Erikson suggests that two identities are involved: the sexual and the occupational. During this stage the body image of the adolescent changes. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of fidelity.

Fidelity involves being able to commit one's self to others on the basis of accepting others, even when there may be ideological differences. During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. Role confusion involves the individual not being sure about themselves or their place in society.

In response to role confusion or identity crisis , an adolescent may begin to experiment with different lifestyles e. Also pressuring someone into an identity can result in rebellion in the form of establishing a negative identity, and in addition to this feeling of unhappiness. Intimacy versus isolation is the sixth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 18 to 40 yrs. During this stage, the major conflict centers on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people.

During this stage, we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer-term commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful completion of this stage can result in happy relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love. Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh of eight stages of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage takes place during during middle adulthood ages 40 to 65 yrs.

Psychologically, generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world through creating or nurturing things that will outlast an individual. During middle age individuals experience a need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often having mentees or creating positive changes that will benefit other people. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. Through generativity we develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. By failing to find a way to contribute, we become stagnant and feel unproductive.

These individuals may feel disconnected or uninvolved with their community and with society as a whole. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of care. This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and can develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. Individuals who reflect on their life and regret not achieving their goals will experience feelings of bitterness and despair. Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear. Wise people are not characterized by a continuous state of ego integrity, but they experience both ego integrity and despair. Thus, late life is characterized by both integrity and despair as alternating states that need to be balanced. By extending the notion of personality development across the lifespan, Erikson outlines a more realistic perspective of personality development McAdams, Middle and late adulthood are no longer viewed as irrelevant, because of Erikson, they are now considered active and significant times of personal growth.

Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences. However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development. What kinds of experiences must people have to successfully resolve various psychosocial conflicts and move from one stage to another? The theory does not have a universal mechanism for crisis resolution.

Indeed, Erikson acknowledges his theory is more a descriptive overview of human social and emotional development that does not adequately explain how or why this development occurs. For example, Erikson does not explicitly explain how the outcome of one psychosocial stage influences personality at a later stage. One of the strengths of Erikson's theory is its ability to tie together important psychosocial development across the entire lifespan.

McLeod, S. Erik erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

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