⚡ England Vs Spanish Colonization
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APUSH Review: Spanish, English, French, and Dutch Colonization (Periods 1 and 2)
The English civilization ability is British Museum , which provides additional Artifact slots and Archaeologists in their Archaeological Museums , and automatically themes them once they are filled. In Gathering Storm , this ability is replaced by Workshop of the World , which increases the amount of Iron and Coal resources extracted from Mines , allows for Military Engineers to be built faster and with additional charges, increases the yields provided by powered buildings , increases Production towards Industrial Zone buildings and makes Harbor buildings increase the amount of Strategic Resources the player can stockpile. Starting bias: Tier 3 towards Coast , tier 5 towards Iron and Coal.
An exploration, colonization and seafaring powerhouse, England is a versatile civilization that can employ an array of strategies to sprint towards the finish line. Whether a Cultural powerhouse in Vanilla and Rise and Fall or a bustling industrial hub in Gathering Storm , assisted by their powerful navy, England is a force to be reckoned with. This ability is decent, but feels rather boring and underwhelming, as it basically just gives you sort of a unique building that does not grant Era Score upon building the first copy. An English Archaeological Museum has twice as many slots as a regular one, and automatically receive theming bonus when filled. A hidden change to this building is that the city it is built in can now host up to 2 Archaeologists with 6 combined charges, or one Archaeologist with 6 charges.
If you have plenty of Gold to spend or that particular city is high in Production , you can produce 2 Archaeologists so they can fill your Museum up faster. This is not always recommended, but in a tight race against other Cultural civilizations, this can ensure you can always fill up all your slots, and since you can only move Artifacts when all the slots are filled, 2 half-filled Museums cannot give you 1 full Museum for the theming bonus to kick in.
You can also always trade with other empires for extra Artifacts, too or use your army to force them to hand them over. With all of their artifacts, it is strongly recommended that England recruits the Great Scientist Mary Leakey , achieves Suzerainty of Anshan , and builds the Terracotta Army. Additionally, your Archaeologists can enter foreign lands without open borders, if you have the Terracotta Army , making filling your museums easier than ever. If you are unable to build the Terracotta Army, use the Gunboat Diplomacy Policy Card to compensate, which will grant you open borders with city-states. If an England players wishes to further boost the Tourism output of their Artifacts, use the Heritage Tourism policy card, which doubles all Tourism from not only Artifacts, but all types of Great Works, as well.
Also, in Rise and Fall , don't forget to assign Reyna with the Curator title to your main Tourism hub to further enhance these numbers. England got a much needed civilization ability overhaul to have more tie-ins with new mechanics like Power and Strategic Resource accumulation. From a dull and passive ability in the Vanilla version, England now truly claims their place as an industrial powerhouse, much like in history. This is a really composite, multifaceted ability. England and Canada are the only civilizations in Gathering Storm whose civilization abilities provide faster resource accumulation; unlike Canada, however, England will not run into low stockpile cap problems for not building Encampments because of their much superior and cheaper Royal Navy Dockyard.
Nevertheless, England's bonus only applies to Iron and Coal. In terms of Iron , most of the time you will only use it for trading with other empires, as England does not have any warfare bonus early on, as well as an edge in terms of land battles, to produce Swordsmen , Knights , and Cuirassiers en masse, but of course, that can still be a choice. Coal is used to build Ironclads, Battleships, railroads combined with Iron and fuel Coal Power Plants , all of which is much more useful and plays directly into England's Industrial Era power spike.
Make sure you unlock Industrialization as fast as possible to reveal Coal , scout out good landmasses and start to colonize them. With the Pax Britannica ability and the Royal Navy Dockyard, even lands far from your territory are not out of your grasp. Higher stockpile limit also means you can store every other types of Strategic Resources better, including Uranium for later nukes and Giant Death Robots , and Aluminum for aircraft and a possible Scientific Victory. In order to be able to build Military Engineers , you need an Encampment with an Armory. As England, since your military prowess lies at seas, and buildings in your Royal Navy Dockyards also boost Strategic Resource stockpile, you do not have a lot of incentives of building Encampments, but you should still have at least one copy of the district to make use of Military Engineers.
Later on, they can be used to construct Railroads , which is really good for England considering their considerable income of Iron and Coal , and Mountain Tunnels. Both of these improvements further boost military mobilization inside English territory and yields from Trade Routes. Unlike other civilizations, England should not ignore the use of Military Engineers. With their massive Industrial Zones with impressive adjacency bonuses thanks to all these Aqueducts, Dams and Canals, plus a more powerful Factory, England will be a Production powerhouse that can take any victory type they want.
The Gathering Storm expansion introduced the concept of Power , together with a number of late game buildings whose yields are improved when their parent cities are fully Power ed. The English civilization ability provides additional yields appropriately to all of these buildings except for those which provide Amenities , as Amenities do not count as turn by turn yields in the same sense that Gold , Science , Faith , Culture , Food and Production do.
By saying that, this ability completely ignores the Stadium and the Aquatics Center, as these two buildings still provide the normal amount of Amenities when Power ed compared to other civilizations. There are a number of ways to get your cities Power ed, each of which comes with its own own advantages and disadvantages:. The drawback is that they discharge a lot of carbon into the atmosphere, especially the Coal Power Plant that England loves using since they have plenty of Coal. This can negatively affect your relationship with other leaders or your amount of Diplomatic Favor earned per turn, leading to weaker influence in the World Congress.
However, this is still the most probable way to power your empire when playing as England, as it is available right at your Industrial power spike upon unlocking Industrialization. However, the improvements are unlocked very late into the game, wasting your huge potential for multiple eras; the "0 carbon emission" victory method which relies completely on improvements is definitely not recommended for England. Hydroelectric Dams , on the other hand, are great for England because they have an easier time building Dams with Military Engineers. Still, this building is unlocked with Electricity , a Modern Era technology ; by that time, a whole era will be wasted if you wait for this building and solely rely on it.
Furthermore, the Power supplied by the Hydroelectric Dam is localized supplied to its parent city only. Considering that the Dam is a district with strict placement requirements, many of your cities which cannot build this district may go unpowered. The downside is that you cannot do anything else with that city, so this should be a last resort.
It is especially helpful when you need to rush for a desirable Great Engineer. Overall, Coal Power Plants are still your best friend. Do not worry too much about the Diplomatic Favor penalty, as it will take a while to kick in. If you want to go for a Diplomatic Victory, you can still use Coal Power Plants and gradually phase them out when more advanced power sources are unlocked. No matter which expansion you are playing in, the one goal when playing as Victoria is to scout out a new continent, put down a city and gradually spread your colonies all over that continent, and do that again and again.
In Rise and Fall and the vanilla version, you can get up to two melee units for the first city on a foreign continent, which is not much but still a good incentive to build up your army. In Gathering Storm , the stake is much higher, since now you can get a melee unit and a new Trade Route for the first city on a foreign continent. The first district you should put down in these cities, without a doubt, is your unique Harbor. Remember, although you only gain a melee unit and a new Trade Route from the first city on a continent away from your home continent, you will get a naval unit after building a Royal Navy Dockyard anywhere! This district gives you the Loyalty you need to establish a foothold on that new continent, especially when you have neighbors around that area, and even when you do not look to colonize new continents, just the navy you will have from building this district can help you tremendously wrest control of the sea on any water-dominated maps.
Most of the time, the strongest naval unit will be the most recently unlocked unit that you have, except for 2 cases: Quadrireme and Aircraft Carrier , both of which you can never earn. When the Quadrireme is unlocked, it still has less Combat Strength than the Galley , and Aircraft Carrier is unlocked at the same tech as the Destroyer , which has higher Combat Strength. The number of continents available on the map scale upward according to the map size as follows: Duel 1 , Tiny 2 , Small 3 , Standard 4 , Large 5 and Huge 6 Basically, you will not be able to get anything out of a Duel map with this ability, beside the free naval units. With your free units, especially when you unlock the Redcoat in the Industrial Era, your army of Redcoat, Frigates and Sea Dogs should have no problems pushing deeper in land from your one coastal colony.
Note that, units received this way are not totally "free" like those of Byzantium's Hippodrome , as you still have to pay for their maintenance, in both Gold and resources. This section may be outdated due to the latest patch. Please wait for it to be updated. The Redcoat is one of the strongest melee units all the way to the Atomic Era , especially when fighting on a foreign continent. Attracting settlers proved difficult; however, the Jewish settlement was a success and their descendants settled many parts of Brazil. The Portuguese following the maritime trade routes of Muslims and Chinese traders, sailed the Indian Ocean.
Da Gama in marked the beginning of Portuguese influence in Indian Ocean. It initially became part of the Portuguese province of Arabia and Ethiopia and was administered by a governor general. Around , Zanzibar became part of the western division of the Portuguese empire and was administered from Mozambique. The first English ship to visit Unguja, the Edward Bonaventure in , found that there was no Portuguese fort or garrison. The extent of their occupation was a trade depot where produce was purchased and collected for shipment to Mozambique.
Portuguese were established supporting one Christian local dynasty ruling suitor. By Afonso I sent various of his children and nobles to Europe to study, including his son Henrique Kinu a Mvemba , who was elevated to the status of bishop in The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India. In a series of military conflicts, political manoeuvres and conquests, the Portuguese extended their control over the Sinhalese kingdoms , including Jaffna ,  Raigama , Sitawaka , and Kotte ,  but the aim of unifying the entire island under Portuguese control failed. The invasion was a disaster for the Portuguese, with their entire army wiped out by Kandyan guerrilla warfare. More envoys were sent in to Ethiopia, after Socotra was taken by the Portuguese.
As a result of this mission, and facing Muslim expansion, regent queen Eleni of Ethiopia sent ambassador Mateus to king Manuel I of Portugal and to the Pope, in search of a coalition. In , the Portuguese under Francisco de Almeida won a critical victory in the battle of Diu against a joint Mamluk and Arab fleet sent to counteract their presence in the Arabian Sea. The retreat of the Mamluks and Arabs enabled the Portuguese to implement their strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean.
Afonso de Albuquerque set sail in April from Goa to Malacca with a force of 1, men and seventeen or eighteen ships. That same year, the Portuguese, desiring a commercial alliance, sent an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes , to the kingdom of Ayudhya , where he was well received by king Ramathibodi II. Earlier expeditions by Diogo Dias and Afonso de Albuquerque had explored that part of the Indian Ocean, and discovered several islands new to Europeans. Mascarenhas served as Captain-Major of the Portuguese colony of Malacca from to , and as viceroy of Goa, capital of the Portuguese possessions in Asia, from until his death in He was succeeded by Francisco Barreto , who served with the title of "governor-general". To enforce a trade monopoly, Muscat , and Hormuz in the Persian Gulf , were seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in , and in and , respectively.
He also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia. In while trying to conquer Aden , an expedition led by Albuquerque cruised the Red Sea inside the Bab al-Mandab , and sheltered at Kamaran island. In , the Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the city of Guangzhou by the sea, and they settled on its port for a commercial monopoly of trade with other nations. They were later expelled from their settlements, but they were allowed the use of Macau , which was also occupied in , and to be appointed in as the base for doing business with Guangzhou. The quasi-monopoly on foreign trade in the region would be maintained by the Portuguese until the early seventeenth century, when the Spanish and Dutch arrived. The Portuguese presence disrupted and reorganised the Southeast Asian trade, and in eastern Indonesia they introduced Christianity.
There he established ties with the local ruler who was impressed with his martial skills. The rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore also sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the conflict in Malacca. The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to fully monopolize nor disrupt this trade.
Such an outpost far from Europe generally only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, and as such the feeble attempts at Christianization only strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne, but died en route at Malacca in Following the murder of Sultan Hairun at the hands of the Europeans, the Ternateans expelled the hated foreigners in after a five-year siege. The Portuguese first landed in Ambon in , but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah r.
Altogether, the Portuguese never had the resources or manpower to control the local trade in spices, and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the crucial Banda Islands, the nearby centre of most nutmeg and mace production. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia particularly among the Ambonese. Mauritius was visited by the Portuguese between by Diogo Fernandes Pereira and The Portuguese took no interest in the isolated Mascarene islands. Their main African base was in Mozambique , and therefore the Portuguese navigators preferred to use the Mozambique Channel to go to India. The Comoros at the north proved to be a more practical port of call.
Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas , Manuel I claimed territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in and Accompanied by colonists from mainland Portugal and the Azores, he explored Newfoundland and Nova Scotia possibly reaching the Bay of Fundy on the Minas Basin  , and established a fishing colony on Cape Breton Island , that would last some years or until at least s, based on contemporary accounts. The first settlement was founded in Some European countries, especially France, were also sending excursions to Brazil to extract brazilwood. Worried about the foreign incursions and hoping to find mineral riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land and combat the French. As time passed, the Portuguese created the Viceroyalty of Brazil.
The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes  while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity. The Dutch sacked Bahia in , and temporarily captured the capital Salvador. In the s and s, the Dutch West India Company established many trade posts or colonies. The Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain, were seized by Piet Heyn in In Suriname and Guyana were established.
He landed at Recife , the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January In most of the inhabitants of the town Pernambuco Recife , in the future Dutch colony of Brazil were Sephardic Jews who had been banned by the Portuguese Inquisition to this town at the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. As some years afterward the Dutch in Brazil appealed to Holland for craftsmen of all kinds, many Jews went to Brazil; about Jews left Amsterdam in , accompanied by two distinguished scholars — Isaac Aboab da Fonseca and Moses Raphael de Aguilar.
In the struggle between Holland and Portugal for the possession of Brazil the Dutch were supported by the Jews. From to , the Dutch set up more permanently in the Nordeste and controlled a long stretch of the coast most accessible to Europe, without, however, penetrating the interior. But the colonists of the Dutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant state of siege, in spite of the presence in Recife of John Maurice of Nassau as governor. After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in Portuguese sent military expeditions to the Amazon Rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,  founding villages and forts from Before the Iberian Union period — , Spain tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into Brazil with the Treaty of Tordesillas.
This was disputed in vain, and in Spain confirmed Portuguese sovereignty. The defeat of Abu Abdallah and the death of Portugal's king led to the end of the Portuguese Aviz dynasty and later to the integration of Portugal and its empire at the Iberian Union for 60 years under Sebastian's uncle Philip II of Spain. Philip was married to his relative Mary I cousin of his father, due to this, Philip was King of England and Ireland  in a dynastic union with Spain. The English-Spanish wars of — were clashes not only in English and Spanish ports or on the sea between them but also in and around the present-day territories of Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Panama.
Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to control its coastal regions for a considerable time. From to mostly, the Bandeirantes in Brazil focused on slave hunting, then from to they focused on mineral wealth. Through these expeditions and the Dutch—Portuguese War , Colonial Brazil expanded from the small limits of the Tordesilhas Line to roughly the same borders as current Brazil. In the 17th century, taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the Dutch occupied many Portuguese territories in Brazil.
He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco, in January The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal. The large area of Bahia and its city, the strategically important Salvador, was recovered quickly by an Iberian military expedition in After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal re-established authority over its lost territories including remaining Dutch controlled areas. The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions. Spanish Formosa was established in Taiwan, first by Portugal in and later renamed and repositioned by Spain in Keelung.
It became a natural defence site for the Iberian Union. The colony was designed to protect Spanish and Portuguese trade from interference by the Dutch base in the south of Taiwan. The Spanish colony was short-lived due to the unwillingness of Spanish colonial authorities in Manila to defend it. While technological superiority, military strategy and forging local alliances played an important role in the victories of the conquistadors in the Americas, their conquest was greatly facilitated by old world diseases: smallpox , chicken pox , diphtheria , typhus , influenza , measles , malaria and yellow fever.
The diseases were carried to distant tribes and villages. This typical path of disease transmission moved much faster than the conquistadors, so that as they advanced, resistance weakened. The American natives lacked immunity to these infections. When Francisco Coronado and the Spaniards first explored the Rio Grande Valley in , in modern New Mexico, some of the chieftains complained of new diseases that affected their tribes. Cabeza de Vaca reported that in , when the Spanish landed in Texas, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us. The first epidemic was recorded in and killed the emperor Huayna Capac , the father of Atahualpa. Further epidemics of smallpox broke out in , , and , as well as typhus in , influenza in , diphtheria in and measles in Recently developed tree-ring evidence shows that the illness which reduced the population in Aztec Mexico was aided by a great drought in the 16th century, and which continued through the arrival of the Spanish conquest.
The cocoliztli epidemic from to killed an estimated, additional 2 to 2. The American researcher H. The conquistadors found new animal species, but reports confused these with monsters such as giants, dragons, or ghosts. An early motive for exploration was the search for Cipango, the place where gold was born. Cathay and Cibao were later goals. Books such as The Travels of Marco Polo fuelled rumours of mythical places. In , Francisco de Orellana reached the Amazon River , naming it after a tribe of warlike women he claimed to have fought there.
Others claimed that the similarity between Indio and Iudio , the Spanish-language word for 'Jew' around , revealed the indigenous peoples' origin. Sir Walter Raleigh and some Italian, Spanish, Dutch, French and Portuguese expeditions were looking for the wonderful Guiana empire that gave its name to the present day countries of the Guianas. Several expeditions went in search of these fabulous places, but returned empty-handed, or brought less gold than they had hoped.
They discovered new routes, ocean currents , trade winds , crops, spices and other products. In the sail era knowledge of winds and currents was essential, for example, the Agulhas current long prevented Portuguese sailors from reaching India. Various places in Africa and the Americas have been named after the imagined cities made of gold, rivers of gold and precious stones.
Marching westward in to find the land of the "White King", he was the first European to cross South America from the East. He discovered a great waterfall [ clarification needed ] and the Chaco Plain. He managed to penetrate the outer defences of the Inca Empire on the hills of the Andes , in present-day Bolivia , the first European to do so, eight years before Francisco Pizarro. Garcia looted a booty of silver. The Spanish discovery of what they thought at that time was India, and the constant competition of Portugal and Spain led to a desire for secrecy about every trade route and every colony. As a consequence, many documents that could reach other European countries included fake dates and faked facts, to mislead any other nation's possible efforts.
For example, the Island of California refers to a famous cartographic error propagated on many maps during the 17th and 18th centuries, despite contradictory evidence from various explorers. The legend was initially infused with the idea that California was a terrestrial paradise, peopled by black women Amazons. The tendency to secrecy and falsification of dates casts doubts about the authenticity of many primary sources. Several historians have hypothesized that John II may have known of the existence of Brazil and North America as early as , thus explaining his wish in at the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas , to push the line of influence further west.
Many historians suspect that the real documents would have been placed in the Library of Lisbon. Ferdinand II King of Aragon and Regent of Castile, incorporated the American territories into the Kingdom of Castile and then withdrew the authority granted to governor Christopher Columbus and the first conquistadors. He established direct royal control with the Council of the Indies , the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire , both in the Americas and in Asia.
After unifying Castile, Ferdinand introduced to Castile many laws, regulations and institutions such as the Inquisition , that were typical in Aragon. These laws were later used in the new lands. The Laws of Burgos , created in —, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of settlers in Spanish colonial America, particularly with regards to Native Americans. They forbade the maltreatment of indigenous people, and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism.
Emperor Charles V was already using the term " Council of the Indies " in The Crown reserved for itself important tools of intervention. The "capitulacion" clearly stated that the conquered territories belonged to the Crown, not to the individual. On the other hand, concessions allowed the Crown to guide the Companies conquests to certain territories, depending on their interests. In addition, the leader of the expedition received clear instructions about their duties towards the army, the native population, the type of military action. A written report about the results was mandatory. The army had a royal official, the "veedor". The "veedor" or notary, ensured they complied with orders and instructions and preserved the King's share of the booty.
Armed groups sought supplies and funds in various ways. Financing was requested from the King, delegates of the Crown, the nobility, rich merchants or the troops themselves. The more professional campaigns were funded by the Crown. Campaigns were sometimes initiated by inexperienced governors, because in Spanish Colonial America , offices were bought or handed to relatives or cronies.
Sometimes, an expedition of conquistadors were a group of influential men who had recruited and equipped their fighters, by promising a share of the booty. Aside from the explorations predominated by Spain and Portugal, other parts of Europe also aided in colonization of the New World. King Charles I was documented to receive loans from German bank Welser to help finance the Venezuela expedition for gold. The conquistador borrowed as little as possible, preferring to invest all their belongings. Sometimes, every soldier brought his own equipment and supplies, other times the soldiers received gear as an advance from the conquistador.
Sponsors included governments, the king, viceroys, and local governors backed by rich men. The contribution of each individual conditioned the subsequent division of the booty, receiving a portion the pawn lancero, piquero, alabardero, rodelero and twice a man on horseback caballero owner of a horse. Even the dogs, important weapons of war in their own right, were in some cases rewarded. The division of the booty produced conflicts, such as the one between Pizarro and Almagro.
Though vastly outnumbered on foreign and unknown territory, Conquistadors had several military advantages over the native peoples they conquered. Through the long conflict of the Reconquista , The Spanish and Portuguese belonged to a more militarily advanced civilization with better military strategy, techniques, tools, a few number of crude fire arms, artillery, iron, steel and domesticated animals. Horses and mules carried them, pigs fed them and dogs fought for them.
The indigenous peoples had the advantage of established settlements, determination to remain independent and large numerical superiority. European diseases and divide and conquer tactics contributed to the defeat of the native populations. In the Iberian peninsula, in a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked. Small, lightly equipped armies were maintained at all times. The state of war continued intermittently for centuries and created a very warlike culture in Iberia that forged the Conquistadors. Another factor was the ability of the conquistadors to manipulate the political situation between indigenous peoples and make alliances against larger empires.
To beat the Inca civilization, they supported one side of a civil war. The Spanish overthrew the Aztec civilization by allying with natives who had been subjugated by more powerful neighbouring tribes and kingdoms. These tactics had been used by the Spanish, for example, in the Granada War , the conquest of the Canary Islands and conquest of Navarre. The Europeans practiced war within the terms and laws of their concept of a just war. While Spanish soldiers went to the battlefield to kill their enemies, the Aztecs and Mayas captured their enemies for use as sacrificial victims to their gods—a process called " flower war " by Spanish historians. In traditional cultures of the Stone Age , Bronze Age , and hunter-gatherer societies the warfare was mostly 'endemic', long duration, low intensity, usually evolving into almost a ritualized form.
By contrast, Europe had moved to 'sporadic' warfare in the Middle Ages due to the availability of professionally mercenary armies. Aztec and other native peoples practiced an endemic system of warfare as well, and so were easily defeated by Spanish and Portuguese sporadic-warfare armies in the early s. Spanish and Portuguese forces were capable of quickly moving long distances in foreign land, allowing for speed of maneuver to catch outnumbering forces by surprise. Wars were mainly between clans, expelling intruders. On land, these wars combined some European methods with techniques from Muslim bandits in Al-Andalus. These tactics consisted of small groups who attempted to catch their opponents by surprise, through an ambush. In Mombasa , Dom Vasco da Gama resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships, which were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons.
Spanish conquistadors in the Americas made extensive use of short swords and crossbows , with arquebus becoming widespread only from the s. Animals were another important factor for Spanish triumph. On the one hand, the introduction of the horse and other domesticated pack animals allowed them greater mobility unknown to the Indian cultures. However, in the mountains and jungles, the Spaniards were less able to use narrow Amerindian roads and bridges made for pedestrian traffic, which were sometimes no wider than a few feet.
In places such as Argentina , New Mexico and California , the indigenous people learned horsemanship, cattle raising, and sheep herding. The use of the new techniques by indigenous groups later became a disputed factor in native resistance to the colonial and American governments. The Spaniards were also skilled at breeding dogs for war, hunting and protection. The mastiffs , Spanish war dogs  and sheep dogs they used in battle were effective as a psychological weapon against the natives, who, in many cases, had never seen domesticated dogs. These specially trained dogs were feared because of their strength and ferocity. The strongest big breeds of broad-mouthed dogs were specifically trained for battle. These war dogs were used against barely clothed troops.
They were armoured dogs trained to kill and disembowel. The successive expeditions and experience of the Spanish and Portuguese pilots led to a rapid evolution of European nautical science. Between and , a series of interconnected developments occurred in Europe that provided the impetus for the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. These developments included the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation, the Renaissance , the unification of small states into larger ones with centralized political power, the emergence of new technology in navigation and shipbuilding and the establishment of overland trade with the East and the accompanying transformation of the medieval economy.
Protestantism emphasized a personal relationship between each individual and God without the need for intercession by the institutional church. Thus, the rise of Protestantism and the Counter-Reformation, along with the Renaissance, helped foster individualism and create a climate favorable to exploration. At the same time, political centralization ended much of the squabbling and fighting among rival noble families and regions that had characterized the Middle Ages.
With the decline of the political power and wealth of the Catholic Church, a few rulers gradually solidified their power. Portugal, Spain, France and England were transformed from small territories into nation-states with centralized authority in the hands of monarchs who were able to direct and finance overseas exploration. As these religious and political changes were occurring, technological innovations in navigation set the stage for exploration. Bigger, faster ships and the invention of navigational devices such as the astrolabe and sextant made extended voyages possible.
A nautical map representing Marco Polo with a caravan on the way to Cathay. But the most powerful inducement to exploration was trade. The Orient became a magnet to traders, and exotic products and wealth flowed into Europe. Those who benefited most were merchants who sat astride the great overland trade routes, especially the merchants of the Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice and Florence.
The newly unified states of the Atlantic—France, Spain, England and Portugal—and their ambitious monarchs were envious of the merchants and princes who dominated the land routes to the East. The desire to supplant the trade moguls, especially the Italians, and fear of the Ottoman Empire forced the Atlantic nations to search for a new route to the East. Portugal led the others into exploration. Encouraged by Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese seamen sailed southward along the African coast, seeking a water route to the East. They were also looking for a legendary king named Prester John who had supposedly built a Christian stronghold somewhere in northwestern Africa. Henry hoped to form an alliance with Prester John to fight the Muslims.
His school developed the quadrant, the cross-staff and the compass, made advances in cartography and designed and built highly maneuverable little ships known as caravels. Dias sailed around the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean before his frightened crew forced him to give up the quest. A year later, Vasco da Gama succeeded in reaching India and returned to Portugal laden with jewels and spices. Born in Genoa, Italy, around , Columbus learned the art of navigation on voyages in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.
Columbus, hoping to make such a voyage, spent years seeking a sponsor and finally found one in Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain after they defeated the Moors and could turn their attention to other projects. After ten weeks he sighted an island in the Bahamas, which he named San Salvador. Thinking he had found islands near Japan, he sailed on until he reached Cuba which he thought was mainland China and later Haiti.
But the territorial disputes between Portugal and Spain were not resolved until when they signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, which drew a line leagues west of the Azores as the demarcation between the two empires. Despite the treaty, controversy continued over what Columbus had found. He made three more voyages to America between and , during which he explored Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, Jamaica, and Trinidad. Each time he returned more certain that he had reached the East.
More Spanish expeditions followed. In and , Pedro de Mendoza went as far as present-day Buenos Aires in Argentina, where he founded a colony. As European powers conquered the territories of the New World, they justified wars against Native Americans and the destruction of their cultures as a fulfillment of the European secular and religious vision of the New World. That idea had two parts: one paradisiacal and utopian, the other savage and dangerous. Ancient tales described distant civilizations, usually to the west, where European-like peoples lived simple, virtuous lives without war, famine, disease or poverty. Such utopian visions were reinforced by religious notions. Early Christian Europeans had inherited from the Jews a powerful prophetic tradition that drew upon apocalyptic biblical texts in the books of Daniel, Isaiah and Revelations.England Vs Spanish Colonization Perera England Vs Spanish Colonization Francis Xavier missionary and Portuguese traders, Spain was interested in Japan. The first aristotle alexander the great explorations by Spaniards were followed by a England Vs Spanish Colonization of inland expeditions and conquest.