✪✪✪ Differences Between 1776 And 1870

Friday, December 10, 2021 9:04:41 PM

Differences Between 1776 And 1870



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Townsend Act \u0026 Events Leading up to the Revolutionary War of 1776

The Patuxet tribe had been wiped out by plagues between and , possibly as a result of contact with English fishermen [32] or from contact with the French to the north. When the exploring party made their way back on board, he learned of the death of his wife Dorothy. Dorothy May Bradford from Wisbech, Cambridgeshire fell overboard off the deck of the Mayflower during his absence and drowned. William Bradford recorded her death in his journal. The Mayflower arrived in Plymouth Bay on 20 December The settlers began building the colony's first house on 25 December Christmas. Their efforts were slowed, however, when a widespread sickness struck the settlers. The sickness had begun on the ship.

He was taken to the "common house" the only finished house built then and it was feared that he would not last the night. Bradford recovered, but many of the other settlers were not so fortunate. During the months of February and March , sometimes two or three people died a day. By the end of the winter, half of the settlers had died. During the epidemic, there were only a small number of men who remained healthy and bore the responsibility of caring for the sick. One of these was Captain Myles Standish , a soldier who had been hired by the settlers to coordinate the defense of the colony. Standish cared for Bradford during his illness and this was the beginning of a bond of friendship between the two men.

Bradford had no military experience and therefore came to rely on and trust the advice of Captain Myles Standish concerning military matters. On 16 March, the settlers had their first meeting with the American Indians in the region when Samoset walked into the village of Plymouth as a representative of Massasoit , the sachem of the Pokanokets. This soon led to a visit by Massasoit himself on 22 March, during which he signed a treaty with John Carver , Governor of Plymouth, which declared an alliance between the Pokanokets and Plymouth, requiring them to aid one another militarily in times of need. Bradford recorded the language of the brief treaty in his journal.

He soon became governor and the clause of the treaty that occupied much of his attention as governor pertained to mutual aid. It read, "If any did unjustly war against [Massasoit], we would aid him; if any did war against us, Massasoit should aid us. In April , Governor Carver collapsed while working in the fields on a hot day. He died a few days later. The settlers of Plymouth then chose Bradford as the new governor, a position which he retained off and on for the rest of his life.

The assistant governor for the first three years of the colony's history was Isaac Allerton. In , the structure was changed to a governor and five assistants who were referred to as the "court of assistants," "magistrates," or the "governor's council. William Bradford's most well-known work by far is Of Plymouth Plantation. It is a detailed history in journal form about the founding of the Plymouth Colony and the lives of the colonists from to , [50] a detailed account of his experiences and observations.

The first part of the work was written in ; toward the end of his life, he updated it to provide "the account of the colony's struggles and achievements through the year As Philip Gould writes, "Bradford hoped to demonstrate the workings of divine providence for the edification of future generations. In , Charles F. Richardson referred to Bradford as a "forerunner of literature" and "a story-teller of considerable power. Even today it is considered a valuable piece of American literature, included in anthologies and studied in literature and history classes. It has been called an American classic and the preeminent work of art in seventeenth-century New England. The Of Plymouth Plantation manuscript disappeared by , [53] "presumably stolen by a British soldier during the British occupation of Boston "; [51] it reappeared in Fulham , London, in the bishop of London's library at Lambeth Palace.

United States Senator George Frisbie Hoar and others made multiple attempts to have it returned, and the British finally relinquished it back to Massachusetts on 26 May Bradford's journal also contributed to the book Mourt's Relation , which was written in part by Edward Winslow and published in England in It was intended to inform Europeans about the conditions surrounding the American colonists at the Plymouth Colony.

Bradford's Dialogues are a collection of fictional conversations between the old and new generations, between "younge men" and "Ancient men". William Bradford died on 9 May [60] and was buried on Burial Hill in Plymouth where a cenotaph exists in memory of his life. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from William Bradford Plymouth governor. A conjectural image of Bradford, produced as a postcard in by A. Burbank of Plymouth [1]. Main article: Mayflower. Photocopies of the , , and versions of the document pp. CVLT Nation. Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 24 November Pilgrim Hall Museum. Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 2 April Of Plymouth Plantation, — ISBN The New England Quarterly.

ISSN JSTOR Cambridge University Press. Mayflower passengers and related topics. Squanto Samoset Hobbamock Massasoit Corbitant. British Empire. Occupied jointly with the United States. In , Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. Gave up self-rule in , but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in Now a department of Colombia. Now Lesotho. Now Ghana. Now Botswana. Now part of Tanzania. Now Malawi. Now named Eswatini. Now Namibia. League of Nations mandate.

British Cameroons is now part of Cameroon , while Tanganyika is part of Tanzania. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in as Rhodesia and continued as an unrecognised state until the Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in , Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in From high legal fees to confusing paperwork and expensive lawyers, it can be difficult to settle civil matters. Entrepreneur and TED Fellow Rohan Pavuluri is working to streamline cumbersome legal processes with an app that empowers people to solve their own legal problems.

If you've sanded down your edges to fit in, it's time to bring them back -- there's power, value and beauty there, says Crystal Rasmussen. With candor and humility, Rasmussen shares their experience navigating shame, how it manifests in ourselves and the world and the ways drag revealed a path toward self-love and acceptance. A talk for anyone struggling with becoming exactly who they're meant to be -- and a reminder that it's rarely easy but always worth it. Society has a set of stories it tells itself about who refugees are and what they look like, says documentarian and TED Fellow Feras Fayyad.

With his films, he's on a mission to separate the facts about refugees from fiction, as a form of resistance -- for himself, his daughter and the millions of other Syrian refugees across the world. A harrowing account, a quest to end injustice and a testament to the power of storytelling. Kenya's minibuses -- known as "matatus" -- offer a convenient, affordable and colorful way for people to get around.

But they also pose safety risks and accessibility issues for many of their passengers, especially women. Bringing a feminist perspective, activist and TED Fellow Naomi Mwaura calls for a revolution in public transportation by making routes transparent, protecting passengers from harassment and paving a career path for women in the industry. In big and small ways, we all experience loss: whether it's the passing of a loved one, the close of a career or even the end of a dream. Explaining how to process many types of sorrow, marriage and family therapist Nina Westbrook highlights the importance of grief as a natural emotion and a powerful lens to help you imagine new futures -- and shares ways to support yourself and others through difficult times.

Introducing cutting-edge medical research, he unveils implantable technology that gives real-time, continuous analysis of a patient's health at the molecular level. How much do you think about your future self? If your answer is not much, you're not alone. It can be difficult to plan for a version of yourself you haven't met yet, says psychologist Meg Jay. Sharing how to close the empathy gap between you and your future selves, she outlines courageous questions to ask about how your present and future can align, so you can begin to achieve your goals.

A phone call to a US prison or jail can cost up to a dollar per minute -- a rate that forces one in three families with incarcerated loved ones into debt. In this searing talk about mass incarceration, criminal justice advocate and TED Fellow Bianca Tylek exposes the predatory nature of the billion-dollar prison telecom industry and presents straightforward strategies to dismantle the network of corporations that has a financial interest in seeing more people behind bars for longer periods of time. The stress you may feel being otherized or stereotyped can take a significant toll on your health and well-being.

In this thoughtful conversation, social psychologist Valerie Purdie-Greenaway reveals the true source of this anxiety hint: it isn't the individual and shares strategies on building resilient systems of support for ourselves and others -- so that we can build a more inclusive, empathic and just world. What qualifies someone to become a judge? The answer is surprisingly vague and even taboo to discuss. Lawyer Jessica Kerr sifts through the murky, mysterious process that sits at the center of the Commonwealth judicial system in countries like Australia -- and makes the case for "judge school," a legal education better fit to bring justice, legitimacy and public trust to any court.

Introducing a new type of public space, custom-fit for communities in need of a shot of hope and wonder. Artist and TED Fellow Matthew Mazzotta takes us across the US, sharing delightful projects that refresh space and place, spark collective conversation and reignite a sense of possibility and purpose in their surroundings. Scientists predict climate change will displace more than million people by -- a crisis of "climate migration" the world isn't ready for, says disaster recovery lawyer and Louisiana native Colette Pichon Battle. In this passionate, lyrical talk, she urges us to radically restructure the economic and social systems that are driving climate migration -- and caused it in the first place -- and shares how we can cultivate collective resilience, better prepare before disaster strikes and advance human rights for all.

The glass cliff: an experience of taking on a leadership role only to find that your chances of success have been limited before you've even begun. Equality activist Sophie Williams explores the research-backed reasons behind this workplace phenomenon and how it overwhelmingly affects underrepresented groups, despite a facade of progress and inclusion. Learn more about the biases and behaviors that set people up for failure -- and what can be done to make the path to success in leadership better for everyone. Farming feeds all of us -- yet in rural communities, farmers are under pressure from mounting climate volatility and limited access to modern tools like the internet.

How can agriculture stay resilient and grow with the times? Beth Ford, CEO of the farming co-op Land O'Lakes, shares her plan to establish broadband as a basic right nationwide and talks through an exciting range of climate-friendly innovations aimed at making farmers more sustainable and profitable. In this perspective-shifting talk, she shares how her team is working with students and street riders to create safe spaces, transferable skills and community. Could a small jolt of electricity to your gut help treat chronic diseases? Medical hacker and TED Fellow Khalil Ramadi is developing a new, noninvasive therapy that could treat diseases like diabetes, obesity, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's with an electronic pill. More targeted than a traditional pill and less invasive than surgery, these micro-devices contain electronics that deliver "bionudges" -- bursts of electrical or chemical stimuli -- to the gut, potentially helping control appetite, aid digestion, regulate hormones -- and even stimulate happiness in the brain.

The universe started with a bang -- but how will it end? With astonishing visuals, cosmologist and TED Fellow Katie Mack takes us to the theoretical end of everything, some trillions of years in the future, in a profound meditation on existence, wonder and the legacy of humanity within the immensity of time and space. You may be experiencing burnout and not even know it, say authors and sisters Emily and Amelia Nagoski.

In an introspective and deeply relatable conversation, they detail three telltale signs that stress is getting the best of you -- and share actionable ways to feel safe in your own body when you're burning out. Get the behind-the-scenes story from visual strategist Dan Goods about how a single question launched NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab into action at the beginning of the COVID pandemic, propelling an unprecedented pivot from space-exploring robots to live-saving ventilators. It'll inspire you to wonder: "Is what I'm doing right now the most important thing I can be doing? Should you do a juice cleanse? Is it actually possible to "boost" your immune system?

You're constantly bombarded with ads, news stories and social media posts telling you how to optimize your health -- but a lot of these sources that pretend to be backed by science actually have another agenda. Jen Gunter is here to bust the lies you're told -- and sold -- about your health, debunking some of the stickiest myths out there while helping you to understand how your body really works.

Episode 1 is out now, and answers the question: Do I really need eight glasses of water a day? To listen, find and follow Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter wherever you get your podcasts. Conventional wisdom frames the ideal career path as a linear one -- a ladder to be climbed with a single-minded focus to get to the top. Career development consultants Sarah Ellis and Helen Tupper invite you to replace this outdated and limiting model with "squiggly" careers: dynamic, open-ended growth paths tailor-made for your individual needs, talents and ambitions.

A radical rethink for anyone who feels restricted and defined by the limits of the corporate ladder. In this practical talk, cybersecurity expert Nadya Bartol brings this crucial topic out into the open, lifting the shame around tech mistakes and offering creative ways to celebrate and reward good cybersecurity habits at work and beyond. Parents, take a deep breath: how your kids turn out isn't fully on you.

Of course, parenting plays an important role in shaping who children become, but psychologist Yuko Munakata offers an alternative, research-backed reality that highlights how it's just one of many factors that influence the chaotic complexity of childhood development. A rethink for anyone wondering what made them who they are today and what it means to be a good parent. What has the coronavirus pandemic taught us about ourselves and our relationships?

In a deeply personal and wide-ranging conversation, leadership expert Simon Sinek shares his own experience caring for his mental health as the world shut down. He discusses why we need to nurture friendships in both good times and bad , explains why anyone can be a leader -- and reveals the secret to discovering your "why" in life. Think capitalism is broken? Try cooperativism, says co-op enthusiast and researcher Anu Puusa. She lays out how cooperatives -- businesses owned, operated and controlled by their members -- can both make money and have a positive impact on the environment and local communities.

With co-ops, Puusa says, doing good business and doing good at the same time becomes possible. Luvvie Ajayi Jones isn't afraid to speak her mind or to be the one dissenting voice in a crowd, and neither should you. In this bright, uplifting talk, Ajayi Jones shares three questions to ask yourself if you're teetering on the edge of speaking up or quieting down -- and encourages all of us to get a little more comfortable with being uncomfortable. The pandemic forced the world to work together like never before and, with unprecedented speed, bore a new age of health and medical innovation. Physician-scientist Daniel Kraft explains how breakthroughs and advancements like AI-infused antiviral discoveries and laboratory-level diagnostic tools accessible via smartphones are paving the way for a more democratized, connected and data-driven future of medicine and personalized care.

How do you rediscover a happier, more purpose-driven and less productivity-obsessed self in the wake of the pandemic? Quiz yourself alongside work futurist Dominic Price as he lays out a simple yet insightful four-part guide to assessing your life in ways that can help you reconnect with what's really important. Children of immigrants in the US often experience a unique kind of guilt, brought on by the pressures of navigating different cultures, living up to their parents' expectations and taking on extra family responsibilities. Mental health advocate Sahaj Kaur Kohli offers helpful strategies for dealing with these difficult feelings -- starting with defining your own values and creating space for self-compassion. If you're a frequent flier, you're also a major polluter.

What if there was a way to travel the world with less impact on the environment? In this quick, exciting talk, aviation entrepreneur and TED Fellow Cory Combs lays out how electric aircraft could make flying cleaner, quieter and more affordable -- and shares his work on Electric EEL, the largest hybrid-electric plane ever to fly. Why do we trust some companies and not others? Using real-world examples, digital trust advisor Marcos Aguiar decodes this make-or-break quality -- and offers seven tools to help leaders design a foundation of trust into their business ecosystems in order to achieve long-term success.

What does gender equality have to do with climate change? A lot more than you might think. Empowering women and girls around the world is one of the most important ways to combat carbon pollution and is projected to reduce CO2-equivalent gases by a total of 80 billion tons. Entrepreneur, scientist and TED Fellow Rumaitha Al Busaidi looks at why women are more likely to be impacted and displaced by climate catastrophes -- and explains why access to education, employment and family planning for all women and girls is the key to our climate future.

With this episode, we're having a bit of fun. We're randomly serving different episodes to our global audience. Check back in later, or on a different app? You might get something different! Though we can promise what you'll hear will be true to TED: a curated podcast for the curious, whether it's about business, design, science or philosophy. If you can handle the mystery, stick around -- and dive into our entire portfolio at audiocollective. Why are humans so slow to react to looming crises, like a forewarned pandemic or a warming planet?

It's because we're reluctant to rethink, say organizational psychologist Adam Grant. From a near-disastrous hike on Panama's highest mountain to courageously joining his high school's diving team, Grant borrows examples from his own life to illustrate how tunnel vision around our goals, habits and identities can find us stuck on a narrow path. Drawing on his research, he shares counterintuitive insights on how to broaden your focus and remain open to opportunities for rethinking.

Justin Baldoni wants to start a dialogue with men about redefining masculinity -- to figure out ways to be not just good men but good humans. In a warm, personal talk, he shares his effort to reconcile who he is with who the world tells him a man should be. And he has a challenge for men: "See if you can use the same qualities that you feel make you a man to go deeper," Baldoni says. Are you strong enough to be sensitive? Are you confident enough to listen to the women in your life? The way we behave politically, socially, economically and ecologically isn't working, says community organizer and activist Tai Simpson.

Sharing the creation myth of her Nez Perce tribe, she advocates for a return to the "old ways" guided by Indigenous wisdom that emphasize balance, community and the importance of intergenerational storytelling in order to protect what's sacred. The world's most valuable tech companies profit from the personal data you generate. So why aren't you getting paid for it? In this eye-opening talk, entrepreneur and technologist Jennifer Zhu Scott makes the case for private data ownership -- which would empower you to donate, destroy or sell your data as you see fit -- and shows how this growing movement could put power and cash back into the hands of people.

Every environment on the planet -- from forested mountaintops to scorching deserts and even the human gut -- has a microbiome that keeps it healthy and balanced. Ecologist Steven Allison explores how these extraordinarily adaptable, diverse collections of microorganisms could help solve big global problems like climate change and food insecurity -- and makes the case for getting to know Earth's original inhabitants in fascinating ways.

Not some blind, hopeful feeling, but the conviction that somewhere out there are solutions that, given the right attention and resources, can guide us out of the dark place we're in. For the first episode: artificial intelligence. Will innovation in AI drastically improve our lives, or destroy humanity as we know it? Which sounds more urgent: "global warming" or "pollution blanket overheating planet"? In this actionable talk, communications strategist John Marshall explains why we need to rethink how we talk about climate change -- and offers small but mighty language adjustments to get people to more intuitively understand and care about this existential threat. Have you ever misplaced something you were just holding?

Completely blanked on a famous actor's name? Walked into a room and immediately forgot why? Neuroscientist Lisa Genova digs into two types of memory failures we regularly experience -- and reassures us that forgetting is totally normal. Stay tuned for a conversation with TED science curator David Biello, where Genova describes the difference between common moments of forgetting and possible signs of Alzheimer's, debunks a widespread myth about brain capacity and shares what you can do to keep your brain healthy and your memory sharp.

This virtual conversation was part of an exclusive TED Membership event. Animals are communicating -- but what are they saying? And can we talk back? Using noninvasive robots and a machine-learning algorithm to collect and analyze millions of sperm whale vocalizations known as coda, the team aims to demystify the communication structures and dialects of these majestic creatures -- and possibly even crack the interspecies communication code. This ambitious plan is a part of the Audacious Project, TED's initiative to inspire and fund global change. All new products must pass through the "valley of death" before they reach the market. Many never make it out, and sometimes that's OK -- if they don't work, don't fill a need or for any number of reasons.

One of the fields where this problem is most pressing is zero-carbon technologies. Why is it vulnerable to this trap, and can we change it? Explore how to break the cycle of the funding gap. Everyone's career will hit some turbulence at some point. Instead of pushing harder against the headwinds, we're sometimes better off tilting our rudder and charting a new course. In this episode, host Adam Grant speaks with people who have taken unusual steps to battle uncertainty, rethought their approach to finding and landing a job and reached out for help in unexpected places -- as well as an expert on recessions who forecasts the future by looking to the past. Companies in the US spend billions of dollars each year on diversity, equity and inclusion initiatives, but subtle and not so subtle workplace biases often cost these initiatives -- and the people they're meant to help -- big time by undermining their goals.

DEI expert Joan C. Williams identifies five common patterns of bias that cause these programs to fail -- and offers a data-driven approach to pinpoint where things go wrong and how to make progress instead. How does an astronaut prepare physically and mentally to launch into space? NASA astronaut Megan McArthur, who will take part in the SpaceX Crew-2 mission later this month, shares stellar life lessons on how to cultivate the resolve to do incredible things through preparation -- and a dash of bravery. A rare glimpse at what it takes to literally shoot for the stars. Business in Africa is booming -- but international companies are missing out, says emerging markets expert Nomava Zanazo. Rushing in without knowing their customers, businesses underestimate Africans and make costly assumptions about their diversity, preferences and buying power.

Sharing the basics about what companies need to know to succeed on the continent, Zanazo debunks four myths and misunderstandings about Africa and its citizens -- and invites businesses from overseas to share in its wealth Thousands of languages thrive across the globe, yet modern speech technology -- with all of its benefits -- supports just over a hundred. Computational linguist Kalika Bali dreams of a day when technology acts as a bridge instead of a barrier, working passionately to build new and inclusive systems for the millions who speak low-resource languages. In this perspective-shifting talk, she outlines what happens when a language is omitted from the digital landscape -- and what can be gained when communities keep pace with the future.

Today roads, sidewalks, bridges, and skyscrapers are made of a material called concrete. There's three tons of it for every person on Earth. It's also played a surprisingly large role in rising global temperatures over the last century. So, what exactly makes concrete problematic, and what can we do to fix it? Explore how scientists are working to create a cleaner, more sustainable concrete. With each step, you slide , years back in time. Where are you? Behind a hardware store in New Jersey -- which also happens to be a massive prehistoric graveyard. The only thing that can save it from turning into an apartment complex is geologist Ken Lacovara and a community effort unlike any attempted before.

Hear how this town of 15, tapped into a million-year-old murder mystery -- and learn why solving it is so important to our own future on earth. Would you pay two percent more for the carbon-neutral version of the products you buy and use every day? In this innovative talk, climate pathfinder Jens Burchardt walks us through the costs and considerations of producing planet-friendly products -- from creation to purchase -- and explains why curbing climate change doesn't have to break the bank.

It's an inspiring demonstration of how the barriers to a greener world may not be as insurmountable as we think. How do you effectively regulate stress? Therapist Esther Perel discusses the importance of creating routines, rituals and boundaries to deal with pandemic-related loss and uncertainty -- both at home and at work -- and offers some practical tools and techniques to help you regain your sense of self. The "broken" US political system is actually working exactly as designed, says business leader and activist Katherine Gehl. Examining the system through a nonpartisan lens, she makes the case for voting innovations, already implemented in parts of the country, that give citizens more choice and incentivize politicians to work towards progress and solutions instead of just reelection.

Colleges and universities in the US make billions of dollars each year from sports, compromising the health and education of athletes -- who are disproportionately Black -- in the name of money, power and pride. Sports lawyer and former NCAA investigator Tim Nevius exposes how the system exploits young talent and identifies fundamental reforms needed to protect players. ZigZag, a business podcast about being human, returns with The ZigZag Project: six steps and episodes to help you map out a path that aligns your personal values with your professional ambitions.

In this first episode, host Manoush Zomorodi shares stories and data from the listeners who volunteered to test the project. Learn why change requires spending time in "the neutral zone" -- and get your first assignment. With candor and cunning, sex historian Kate Lister chronicles the curious journey of an ancient, honest word with innocent origins and a now-scandalous connotation in this uproarious love letter to etymology, queens, cows and all things "cunt. Dictionaries and grammar "rules" don't have the final word on language -- and believing they do can harm more than help, especially for the trans community.

Sociolinguist Archie Crowley deconstructs three common myths around language, demonstrating how it's a fluid system that naturally evolves in the direction of inclusion. Could psychedelics help us heal from trauma and mental illnesses? Researcher Rick Doblin has spent the past three decades investigating this question, and the results are promising. In this fascinating dive into the science of psychedelics, he explains how drugs like LSD, psilocybin and MDMA affect your brain -- and shows how, when paired with psychotherapy, they could change the way we treat PTSD, depression, substance abuse and more. Valorie Kondos Field knows a lot about winning.

As the longtime coach of the UCLA women's gymnastics team, she won championship after championship and has been widely acclaimed for her leadership. In this inspiring, brutally honest and, at times, gut-wrenching talk, she shares the secret to her success. Hint: it has nothing to do with "winning. For a long time, Amrou Al-Kadhi struggled to negotiate the intersections between their queer and Islamic heritage. These identities felt completely polarized, as if their identity were founded on a tectonic fault at constant risk of rupture.

Yet, it was the unlikely world of quantum physics that allowed Al-Kadhi to find the magic of contradictions -- and to revel in their intersectional identity. From hours-long lines and limited polling locations to confusing and discriminatory registration policies, why is it so hard to vote in the US? Voting rights expert Amber McReynolds offers a proven alternative: a new process, already happening in parts of the country, that could bring accountability, transparency and equity to the outdated and sputtering system that American democracy currently relies on.

The only thing as powerful as our grief is the love we have for those we've lost, says photographer Caroline Catlin. In this meditation on the intersection of life and death, Catlin shares how her personal journey with loss drove her to capture the elusive moments of grace and beauty that exist even in the hardest moments imaginable. Biodesigner Natsai Audrey Chieza prototypes the future, imagining a world where people and nature can thrive together. In this wildly imaginative talk, she shares the vision behind her innovation lab, which works at the intersection of nature, technology and society to create sustainable materials and models for the future. Chieza invites us to consider what kind of world we wish for -- and what systemic changes and collaborations need to happen for it to exist.

The single most important thing for avoiding a climate disaster is cutting carbon pollution from the current 51 billion tons per year to zero, says philanthropist and technologist Bill Gates. Introducing the concept of the "green premium" -- the higher price of zero-emission products like electric cars, artificial meat or sustainable aviation fuel -- Gates identifies the breakthroughs and investments we need to reduce the cost of clean tech, decarbonize the economy and create a pathway to a clean and prosperous future for all. How do spaces shape the human experience? In what ways do our rooms, homes and buildings give us meaning and purpose?

In this segment, architect Michael Murphy joins host Manoush Zomorodi to explore the power of the spaces we make and inhabit. Higher education remains rooted in rigid, traditional structures and tracks -- and it's at risk of getting left behind in favor of expanded access, greater flexibility and tailored learning. Educator Tyler DeWitt explains how innovations in digital content and virtual reality are ushering in the future of learning, emphasizing why academia must adapt to this new reality and embrace an approach to education that works with students' needs -- not against them.

In this practical talk, she shares three essential features of productive disagreements grounded in curiosity and purpose. The end result? Constructive conversations that sharpen your argument -- not your relationships. What if we could we use biology to restore our balance with nature without giving up modern creature comforts? Advocating for a new kind of environmentalism, scientist and entrepreneur Emily Leproust rethinks modern sustainability at the molecular level, using synthetic biology to create green alternatives. From lab-developed insulin and disease-resistant bananas to airplanes made of super-strong spider silk, she explains how reading and writing DNA can lead to groundbreaking innovations in health, food and materials.

When you report an emergency in the US, police, firefighters or paramedics answer the call. What if mental health professionals responded, too? Colorado State Representative Leslie Herod shares a straightforward and research-backed approach that brings heart and humanity to criminal justice rather than unnecessary fines and arrests -- and keeps crises from escalating into traumatic, or even deadly, events. Do you think Hollywood needs to change? How about your own industry? It's difficult to get decision makers to step outside of the tried-and-true and attempt something new.

In this episode, host Chris Duffy sits down with Franklin Leonard -- founder and CEO of the Black List, a company that elevates great screenplays and the writers who create them -- to discuss how he shifted the way Hollywood works, and how anyone can catalyze change by questioning whether the conventional wisdom is all convention and no wisdom. Can it also change it for the better? Consultant Patty McCord reviews four key insights employers and employees alike gleaned from their shift to working from home -- and shares how companies can use what they learned in lockdown to creatively and innovatively rethink how we do business.

How do companies like SpaceX make sudden breakthroughs on decades-old challenges? Picture your favorite place in nature. How would you feel if it disappeared tomorrow? Calls for authenticity at work ask for passionate people with diverse, fresh perspectives who challenge old ways of thinking. But too often workplace culture fails to support the authenticity of professionals of color and other underrepresented groups, leading instead to backlash and fewer opportunities. Writer Jodi-Ann Burey outlines steps toward exposing privilege and achieving true equity on the job -- and implores those in leadership positions to accept responsibility for change. Feelings are complicated.

And even more so at work. We like to believe the ultimate professional is stoic, but what important information do we miss when we disregard our emotions on the job? In this episode, Harvard psychologist Susan David helps us break free from the "tyranny of positivity" and embrace the full range of our emotions. After the talk, host Modupe Akinola extends this idea to the workplace by examining a time she shed tears at a meeting with colleagues. After a terminal cancer diagnosis upended 12 years of remission, all Elaine Fong's mother wanted was a peaceful end of life.

What she received instead became a fight for the right to decide when. Fong shares the heart-rending journey to honor her mother's choice for a death with dignity -- and reflects on the need to explore our relationship to dying so that we may redesign this final and most universal of human experiences. With the Climate Reality Project, Al Gore is helping mold future leaders to build the movement for climate survival and social justice from the ground up. Together, they're gathering local actors into a global, grassroots movement that aims to turn the climate fight around. When personal relationships and ideological differences collide, the result can lead to strained relations -- or even years of silence and distance.

Actor Betty Hart offers an alternative to cold shoulders and haughty hellos: compassion, and a chance for growth and change instead of losing important time with loved ones. What does it take to be a pro gamer? Esports expert William Collis charts the rise of the multibillion-dollar competitive gaming industry and breaks down three skills needed to master video games like Fortnite, League of Legends and Rocket League.

And watch out, Collis says: these skills can set you up for crushing it at work, too. Debbie Millman talks to author Cheryl Strayed about her childhood, career and the value of taking a very long hike. To futureproof your job against robots and AI, you should learn how to code, brush up on your math skills and crack open an engineering textbook, right?

In this surprisingly comforting talk, tech journalist Kevin Roose makes the case that rather than trying to compete with the machines, we should instead focus on what makes us uniquely human. Corporations and big business have wrecked the environment, but disadvantaged communities living in "sacrifice zones" -- urban areas heavily polluted and poisoned by industry -- are paying the price, says climate justice leader Angela Mahecha Adrar.

Explaining why racial and economic justice must be at the center of climate action, she takes us to the frontline communities that are leading the world to clean, innovative and just climate solutions -- like Cooperativa Tierra y Libertad, a local farm co-op in Washington that's disrupting the multibillion-dollar berry business. In the grand scheme of history, modern reality is a bizarre exception when compared to the worlds of ancient, precolonial and Indigenous civilizations, where myths ruled and gods roamed, says historian Greg Anderson.

So why do Westerners today think they're right about reality and everybody else is wrong? Anderson tears into the fabric of objective reality to reveal the many universes that lie beyond -- and encourages a healthy reimagining of what other possible ways of being human could look like. Aliens have invaded ancient history: they've cropped up in humanity's past through popular television and movies, displacing facts with absurd yet commonplace beliefs like "aliens built the pyramids.

On his first day as president, Joe Biden signed a letter of acceptance that set in motion the day process for the United States to re-join the Paris Agreement on climate. Listen as Kerry lays out how the US fits into the global plan to get to net-zero emissions, explains why the COP26 UN climate conference could be humanity's "last best hope" to build international momentum and explores the role of business and youth activists in promoting environmental justice. This interview features an introduction from Christiana Figueres, the principal architect of the Paris Agreement.

In this funny, insightful talk, she explores the evolution of assistive listening technology, the outdated way people still respond to deafness and how we can shift our cultural understanding of ability to build a more inclusive world. When catastrophe strikes, art prevails -- and has done so for centuries. In this fascinating talk, writer and director Cara Greene Epstein places the closing of theaters during the coronavirus pandemic in a historical context, exploring how we can use this intermission to imagine a more just, representative and beautiful world, onstage and off.

What if everything in your life was randomized: from the food you ate to the things you did and the places you traveled? Computer scientist Max Hawkins created algorithms to make decisions like these for him -- and got hooked on the experience for two years. He shares how relinquishing choice sent him across the world and opened him up to the beautiful complexity and richness of life. It makes you wonder: What lies just outside your comfort zone? Michael Tubbs is the youngest mayor in American history to represent a city with more than , people -- and his policies are sparking national conversations.

In this rousing talk, he shares how growing up amid poverty and violence in Stockton, California shaped his bold vision for change and his commitment to govern as a neighbor, not a politician. Your teeth carry secrets: centuries of history about your ancestors, from where they lived to what they ate and where they traveled. Bioarchaeologist Carolyn Freiwald traces the story of human migration across the Americas -- from Mayan royalty and Belizean buccaneers to rural Appalachian farmers -- to illustrate what ancient teeth can reveal about you. Centuries of inequality can't be solved with access to technology alone -- we need to connect people with training and support too, says tech inclusionist 'Gbenga Sesan.

Sharing the work behind the Paradigm Initiative, a social enterprise in Nigeria that's empowering young people with digital resources and skills, Sesan details a vision for creating life-changing opportunities for generations of people across Africa. Climate change is the epic challenge of our lives, and community leaders like Rahwa Ghirmatzion and Zelalem Adefris are already working on sustainable, resilient solutions. Through their organizations in Buffalo and Miami, they're focused on durable, affordable housing for under-resourced communities, the most vulnerable to the instability of climate change.

Watch for a lesson on how we can work alongside our neighbors to address climate catastrophe and social inequality. Narrated by Don Cheadle. What if tiny microparticles could help us solve the world's biggest problems in a matter of minutes? That's the promise -- and magic -- of quantum computers, says Matt Langione. Speaking next to an actual IBM quantum computer, he explains how these machines solve complex challenges like developing vaccines and calculating financial risk in an entirely new way that's exponentially faster than the best supercomputers -- and shares why industries should prepare now for this new leap in computing.

Concrete is the second most-used substance on Earth behind water , and it's responsible for eight percent of the world's carbon footprint. Cement researcher Karen Scrivener shares the research behind a pioneering new kind of cement known as LC3, which could slash carbon emissions from this crucial building material by 40 percent, if adopted at scale. How do you get the environment to the top of everyone's priority list? You can't, says climate advocate Angela Francis -- but you can get them to care about improving their lives. In this pragmatic talk, she shares her playbook for helping even the most skeptical among us see the benefits of a greener economy on their health, wealth and well-being.

What drives society's understanding of right and wrong? In this thought-provoking talk, futurist Juan Enriquez offers a historical outlook on what humanity once deemed acceptable -- from human sacrifice and public executions to slavery and eating meat -- and makes a surprising case that exponential advances in technology leads to more ethical behavior. Here's a shocking statistic: 50 to 80 percent of people in the criminal justice system in the US have had a traumatic brain injury. In the general public, that number is less than five percent. Neuropsychologist Kim Gorgens shares her research into the connection between brain trauma and the behaviors that keep people in the revolving door of criminal justice -- and some ways to make the system more effective and safer for everyone.

What if we could better understand the world's biggest challenges simply by looking at a map? Jack Dangermond, a pioneer in geographic information system GIS technology that powers the digital maps people around the world use every day, speaks with TED technology curator Simone Ross about how his team is building a geospatial nervous system: a global, interconnected GIS network that reveals patterns, visualizes trends -- and could transform the way we make decisions about nearly everything. Is art worth it? Alan Brooks -- art has the power to scare dictators, inspire multitudes and change hearts and minds across the world. Reflecting on his journey to become an artist at a time when the world felt like it was burning, Brooks shares how creating something from a place of sincerity and passion can positively impact people in ways you may never know.

Difficult emotions are like the spikes of a cactus: they can get under your skin if you're not careful. In this empowering talk, performance psychologist Jessica Woods shares four mood-regulating strategies to help you gain self-awareness of your feelings, avoid catching other people's emotions and perform at your peak -- whatever the prickly situation may be. Significant pieces of the globe are literally not on the map: they're missing from the most widely used mapping platforms, like Google Street View, leaving communities neglected of vital services and humanitarian aid. In this globetrotting talk, photographer Tawanda Kanhema takes us along on his journey to map 3, miles of uncharted areas in Zimbabwe, Namibia and northern Canada -- and shows how we can all contribute to building a more connected world.

The abrupt shift to online learning due to COVID rocked the US education system, unearthing many of the inequities at its foundation. Educator Nora Flanagan says we can reframe this moment as an opportunity to fix what's long been broken for teachers, students and families -- and shares four ways schools can reinvent themselves for a post-pandemic world. Shopping is about more than just what you buy: it's a treasure hunt to discover something new, a negotiation to get a great deal, a time to catch up with friends and family. But for many, online shopping has turned the experience into an impersonal, unsatisfactory event. Is there a way to bring back the magic? With exciting examples from companies in India, Thailand and China, consumer expert Nimisha Jain introduces us to "conversational commerce," a new retail model that combines the convenience of a digital experience with the personalized touch of a real, human interaction.

Living in a city means accepting a certain level of dysfunction: long commutes, noisy streets, underutilized spaces. Carlos Moreno wants to change that. He makes the case for the "minute city," where inhabitants have access to all the services they need to live, learn and thrive within their immediate vicinity -- and shares ideas for making urban areas adapt to humans, not the other way around. As the founder of a startup, Tracy Young often worried that employees and investors valued male CEOs more -- and that being a woman compromised her position as a leader.

In this brave, personal talk, she gives an honest look at the constraints women face when trying to adapt to a male-dominated business culture -- and shares how she developed the courage and vulnerability to lead as her complete, raw self. This talk contains a graphic story. Discretion is advised. For anyone who believes poetry is stuffy or elitist, National Youth Poet Laureate Amanda Gorman has some characteristically well-chosen words.

Poetry is for everyone, she says, and at its core it's all about connection and collaboration. In this fierce talk and performance, she explains why poetry is inherently political, pays homage to her honorary ancestors and stresses the value of speaking out despite your fears. Democracy needs an update -- one that respects and engages citizens by involving them in everyday political decisions, says writer and researcher Max Rashbrooke. He outlines three global success stories that could help move democratic systems forward and protect society against the new challenges this century is already bringing.

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