⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ The Woolf Reforms

Friday, November 19, 2021 6:08:50 PM

The Woolf Reforms



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ELS Civil Justice Pt 4

Professor Richard Susskind OBE is an author, speaker, and independent adviser to major professional firms and to national governments. His main area of expertise is the future of professional service and, in particular, the way in which the IT and the Internet are changing the work of lawyers. He has worked on legal technology for over 30 years. He lectures internationally, has written many books, and advised on numerous government inquiries. Richard lectures internationally and has been invited to speak in over 40 countries and has addressed audiences in person and electronically , numbering more than , His work has been translated into 10 languages.

Richard has a first class honours degree in law from the University of Glasgow and a doctorate in law and computers from Balliol College, Oxford. He lives in Radlett, England, with his wife and three children. His hobbies include running, golf, skiing, reading and cinema. Although Richard is self-employed and works independently, he does not claim to be a dispassionate analyst or to be free of commercial interests. His passion is the modernization of the practice of law and the administration of justice. His belief that the professions and justice systems should be modernized underpins most of his activities as an advisor and commentator.

He consults widely in the private sector, to major law firms and to large in-house legal departments. He has been an active member of an advisory board of Lyceum Capital, a private equity firm that is committed to investing in the legal profession; and he was chairman of the advisory board of Integreon, a legal and business process outsourcing business. Given his various roles, responsibilities, and interests, Richard is sensitive to conflicts that may arise, and he discusses these regularly with those with whom he works closely.

In this capacity, he works closely with senior judges in England and Wales in helping them identify and articulate the most promising applications of IT for the Judiciary. Also in this role, he works alongside politicians and officials in the Ministry of Justice formerly the Department for Constitutional Affairs and before that the Lord Chancellor's Department and with the Court Service. Details about most of these initiatives can be found at www. Richard has been a member of the Society for more than 30 years and was its Chairman from to The Society is the leading UK organization for legal professionals advising and practising within the IT sector.

Its mission is to be the community for lawyers who understand IT and the related legal and business practice issues and provides thought leadership, best practice, education and standards in these areas. See www. Richard played an important role in the establishment of the Oxford Internet Institute and, since , has been a Founding Member of its Advisory Board. The Oxford Internet Institute was founded as a department of the University of Oxford in , as an academic centre for the study of the societal implications of the Internet.

The current home, in a building owned by Balliol College, was formally opened in July For further information, see www. Download PDF. See more details at UCL's website. From to , he was Gresham Professor of Law, and from to was the first Honorary Professor in the College since its establishment in There are eight Gresham Professors - in music, divinity, commerce, rhetoric, geometry, physic, astronomy, and law.

The purpose of the College is and always has been to raise awareness of the latest learning in each of these disciplines. Since she has been director of the Lawpaths project. Update to an article previously published on LLRX. The UK Legal System. Background and Constitution. Constitutional reform. The Court System. Primary Sources of Law: Introduction. Primary Legislation: Acts of Parliament. Delegated Legislation: Statutory Instruments. Electronic Sources for Legislation.

Case Law. Law Reports. Electronic Sources for Case Law. Public Domain Services. Subscription Services. Indexes and Digests. Legislation and Case Law Indexes. Periodical Indexes. Parliamentary Information. United Kingdom Government. Official Publications. Law Reform. Devolved governments. Northern Ireland. The Legal Profession. Legal Education. Legal Publishers. The United Kingdom was established in with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, but only achieved its present form in with the partition of Ireland and the establishment of the independent Irish Free State later the Republic of Ireland.

There have been significant constitutional reforms since the Labour government came into power in , which make any description of the UK legal system before then out of date. The Labour government immediately instituted a process of devolution, i. Ireland already had its Assembly, although this was not in operation see below under Northern Ireland. These devolved governments are dealt with in separate sections. This allows for the provisions of the Convention to be applied directly by the UK courts. There is no written constitution. The Queen is the Head of State, although in practice the supreme authority of the Crown is carried by the government of the day. The legislature is a bicameral Parliament. The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament MPs , elected by simple majority vote in a general election every five years, although the Government has the right to call an election at any time before then, and in practice usually brings the date forward to secure electoral advantage.

The House of Lords until recently consisted of life peers, awarded peerages for public service, and a large number of hereditary peers whose membership of the House of Lords depended on their aristocratic birth. The constitutional law of the UK is regarded as consisting of statute law on the one hand and case law on the other, whereby judicial precedent is applied in the courts by judges interpreting statute law. A third element consists of constitutional conventions which do not have statutory authority but nevertheless have binding force. Much of the relationship between the Sovereign and Parliament is conventional rather than statutory.

The Labour government which came into power in , and is now in its third term of office, has instituted constitutional reforms in three distinct areas: the reform of the House of Lords, devolution, and the passing of the Human Rights Act It began the long-overdue process of House of Lords reform by abolishing the voting rights of all the hereditary peers apart from ninety-two who remain until the House is fully reformed.

These proposed a predominantly appointed second chamber with a minority of elected members representing regions of the UK, and attracted much dissension. On 13 May the issue of reform was in effect sent back to the drawing board. Although the UK had been a signatory to the European convention on Human Rights since , the Act provided for the provisions of the Convention to be incorporated into domestic law. This means that a consideration of human rights affects every area of government. For the effects of devolution reforms see below. Its changed responsibilities include holding and administering the judicial system, human rights, and electoral and constitutional reform. The role of Lord Chancellor has been modified, with the holder renamed Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor, relinquishing his functions as Speaker of the House of Lords and most importantly as a judge.

This Act also made important changes to the courts and the judiciary. See below for details. For valuable commentary on constitutional affairs see the University College London Constitution Unit , in particular its Constitutional Update and monthly Monitor. Cases may be appealed to the Court of Appeal Civil Division. Cases may be appealed from the County Court to the High Court. The House of Lords is the supreme court of appeal. Its judicial functions are quite separate from its legislative work, and cases are heard by up to 13 senior judges known as the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, or Law Lords.

It shares its function as the supreme appellate court with. The judicial work of the House of Lords is described on its web pages. The HMCS web pages provide information on the other courts. However the Constitutional Reform Act see Explanatory Notes provides for the establishment of a Supreme Court to replace the judicial function of the House of Lords with an independent appointments system, thereby making a constitutional separation between the legislature and the judiciary. A further appellate court, sometimes omitted in a description of the system, is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council , which hears cases from the British overseas territories and dependencies as well as some specialised domestic appeals.

It also hears cases concerning questions relating to the powers and functions of the devolved legislatures. See below. In addition to the courts there are specialised Tribunals, which hear appeals on decisions made by various public bodies and Government departments, in areas such as employment, immigration, social security, tax and land. The Court Service also contains information on these. There has been extensive reform of civil procedure in recent years. Following on the publication of a major report on Access to Justice by Lord Woolf in , a completely new set of Civil Procedure Rules were put into operation in , as well as new legislation for modernising the courts and legal services. Appeals are heard in the Court of Appeal Criminal Division.

The Criminal Justice System website contains more information. The various reports, the new Civil and Criminal Procedure Rules and much else can be found on the Department for Constitutional Affairs website. Web-based sources for primary law have been made available officially since However, while they offer authentic texts they are limited by the fact that they are not annotated, amended or hyperlinked. Consequently it is necessary to use commercial subscription services in order to get reliable up to date information. Early in a new initiative to put up hyperlinked texts of UK legislation and case law was launched. There are links other cases and legislation where they are loaded on the database. The site is under development, and coverage is patchy at present.

However, in BAILII has received substantial funding for development, which is likely to confirm its status as the major free resource for law. Butterworths, Most of us in traditional jobs would agree: That is not the generally understood definition of an employer-employee relationship. The employment contract is just one way of working, and one that is increasingly out of step with what workers want. Targeted reforms at the local level would be better than sweeping nationwide changes.

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The 15 men who met at Wannsee were not ignorant thugs — most of them were qualified lawyers, and eight of them held academic doctorates. Yet in this luxurious setting these highly educated individuals would discuss what is arguably the most appalling crime of all time — the extermination of the Jews. We only know about what was discussed at Wannsee. A John I. Smith K-8 Center teacher was charged with having an inappropriate relationship and sex with a year-old former student of hers, police say — becoming the third teacher in Miami-Dade County arrested for similar charges this month. Halsey used her undergarments to accessorize, wearing a black bra and matching thong, making the aesthetic feel truly authentic to the early '00s era.

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