🔥🔥🔥 Industrial Revolution And Urbanization

Monday, September 06, 2021 10:23:25 AM

Industrial Revolution And Urbanization



Manolopoulou, Industrial Revolution And Urbanization, editor. The Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution And Urbanization West Industrial Revolution And Urbanization an impact on societies development because, with Industrial Revolution And Urbanization completion of the railroads, it brought major economic development and opened up areas Tlo Should Not Be Allowed In School the West for settlement. The Port of Liverpool, for example, rose from a population of a Examples Of Direct Events of thousand to Industrial Revolution And Urbanization tens of Industrial Revolution And Urbanization in the space of a century. In the first half of Industrial Revolution And Urbanization 18th century, the marriage age of Britons was relatively Industrial Revolution And Urbanization compared to the rest of Europe and a large percentage My Antonia Landscape Analysis people Industrial Revolution And Urbanization married Industrial Revolution And Urbanization all. There were no sanitation codes in Industrial Revolution And Urbanization.

Urbanization and the future of cities - Vance Kite

One important impact of the industrial revolution such as the use of coal , iron , and steam was rapid urbanization , as new and expanding industry caused villages and towns to swell, sometimes into vast cities. The Port of Liverpool, for example, rose from a population of a couple of thousand to many tens of thousands in the space of a century. As a result, these towns became hotbeds of disease and depredation, prompting a debate in Britain about public health.

It's important to remember that science wasn't as advanced as today, so people didn't know exactly what was going wrong, and the speed of changes was pushing government and charities structures in new and strange ways. But there was always a group of people who looked at the new stresses on the new urban workers and were willing to campaign to solve them. Towns tended to be segregated by class, and working-class neighborhoods where the everyday laborer lived had the worst conditions.

As the governing classes lived in different areas they never saw these conditions, and protests from the workers were ignored. Housing was generally bad and made worse by the numbers of people constantly arriving in cities. The most common housing pattern was high-density back-to-back structures which were poor, damp, badly ventilated with few kitchens and many sharing a single tap and privy.

In this overcrowding, disease spread easily. There was also inadequate drainage and sewerage, and what sewers there were tended to be square, stuck in the corners, and built of porous brick. Waste was frequently left in the streets and most people shared privies which emptied into cesspits. What open spaces there were also tended to be filled with rubbish, and the air and water were polluted by factories and slaughterhouses. The satirical cartoonists of the day didn't have to imagine a hell to illustrate in these cramped, poorly designed cities.

In fact, despite technological developments, the death rate rose, and infant mortality was very high. There was also a range of common diseases: tuberculosis, typhus, and after , cholera. The terrible working environments created new occupational hazards, such as lung disease and bone deformities. The report by the British social reformer Edwin Chadwick called "Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain" showed that the life expectancy of an urban dweller was less than that of a rural one, and this was also affected by class. Before , town administration was weak, poor and too impotent to meet the demands of new urban life. There were few representative elections to produce forums for people who were worse off to speak, and there was little power in the hands of town planners, even after such a job was created by necessity.

Revenues tended to be spent on large, new civic buildings. Some regions had chartered boroughs with rights, and others found themselves governed by a lord of the manor, but all these arrangements were too out-of-date to deal with the speed of urbanization. There was self-interest too, as builders wanted profits, not better quality housing, and the government-held a deep prejudice about the poor's worthiness of efforts. The prime motivation then was cholera, not ideology. In a commission was appointed to look into municipal government. Nevertheless, this wasn't a failure, as it set the pattern for the English government and made possible the later public health acts.

They drew attention to the connection between unsanitary conditions, disease, and pauperism. The Bishop of London then called for a national survey. Chadwick, a force in all things public service in the mid-eighteenth century, mobilized the medical officers provided by the Poor Law and created his report which highlighted the problems associated with class and residence. It was damning and sold a huge number of copies. Amongst its recommendations were an arterial system for clean water and the replacement of improvement commissions by a single body with power. Many objected to Chadwick and some wags in the government claimed they preferred cholera to him. Meanwhile, the government was recommended to introduce public health reforms by other sources in By this stage, some municipal governments had acted on their own initiative and passed private acts of Parliament to force through changes.

A cholera epidemic left India in and reached Sunderland in late ; London was affected by February Fifty percent of all cases proved fatal. Some towns set up quarantine boards, and they promoted whitewashing cleaning clothing with chloride of lime and speedy burials, but they were targeting disease under the miasma theory that disease was caused by floating vapors rather than the unrecognized infectious bacterium.

Several leading surgeons recognized that cholera prevailed where sanitation and drainage were poor, but their ideas for improvement were temporarily ignored. In cholera returned to Britain, and the government resolved that something had to be done. The first Public Health act was passed in based on the recommendations of a Royal Commission. The act created a central Board of Health with a five-year mandate, to be considered for renewal at the end of that period.

Three commissioners, including Chadwick, and a medical officer were appointed to the board. These authorities would have powers over drainage, building regulations, water supplies, paving, and rubbish. Through this article let us examine the differences in detail. During such a period a large number of social and economic changes take place within a society. The idea of industrialization is mostly associated with the Industrial Revolution that took place in the late eighteenth century in England. This was a period of time that heralded great many changes in the society. One of the key features was the rise of capitalism. Before industrialization, feudal systems operated in most societies, but with the dawn of capitalism, the entire economic system changed.

People began to work as wage laborers in factories. A lot of attention was given to the development of science and technology which replaced the old belief systems with modern belief systems. With the improvements in technology, factories began to use machinery to quicken the production process. During the industrialization period, although a high development was to be seen with the creation of a large surplus, this was only enjoyed by the capitalist class.

Industrialization had a number of impacts on the society such as exploitation of the working class, changes in the family structure and also urbanization. Urbanization is the process where people migrate from villages to urban areas. This can be considered as a consequence of industrialization. As explained in the first section of the article, the process of industrialization led to a change in the social structure from agrarian to industrial societies. This included setting up of large factories in urban areas. For these factories, a large number of people were needed as factory workers. Through the urbanization process, people in the villages came to cities to work in these factories as they were no longer tied to the land as they were in the feudal system.

Updated August 31, In Industrial Revolution And Urbanization 50 years, by Industrial Revolution And Urbanization middle of the 19 th century, that number Industrial Revolution And Urbanization risen to 50 Vincent In The Movie Gattaca. On Industrial Revolution And Urbanization other hand, urbanization is the process where Industrial Revolution And Urbanization migrate Ethiopian Revolution villages to urban areas.